Abstract

The sending rate of commonly used TCP protocols is tightly coupled to packet loss within the network: a high rate of packet loss will cause a sender to slow down, thereby reducing the network load and decreasing subsequent packet loss rates. In this paper, we combine a widely verified source rate TCP model with an Optical Burst Switching (OBS) loss model, to find fixed-point input loads and loss rates for an OBS link carrying TCP traffic. In doing so, we show that if OBS networks are to be efficiently used to carry TCP traffic, many wavelengths with full wavelength conversion are required.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. M. Odlyzko , “ Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications ,” in Proceedings of SPIE Optical Transmission Systems and Equipment for WDM Networking II , 5247 , 1 – 15 ( 2003 ).
  2. K. Claffy , G. Miller , and K. Thompson , “ The Nature of the Beast: Recent Traffic Measurements from an Internet Backbone ,” ( 1998 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.
  3. M. Fomenkov , K. Keys , D. Moore , and K. Claffy , “ Longitudinal study of Internet traffic in 1998-2003 ,” ( 2003 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr_overview.pdf.
  4. M. Zukerman , E. Wong , Z. Rosberg , G. M. Lee , and H. L. Vu , “ On Teletraffic Applications to OBS ,” IEEE Commun. Lett.   8 , 116 – 118 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Padhye , V. Firoiu , D. F. Towsley , and J. F. Kurose , “ Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   8 , 133 – 145 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Floyd and V. Paxson , “ Difficulties in simulating the Internet ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   9 , 392 – 403 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Gowda , R. K. Shenai , K. M. Sivalingam , and H. C. Cankaya , “ Performance Evaluation of TCP over Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) WDM Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Anchorage, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2003 ), pp. 1433 – 1437 .
  8. X. Yu , C. Qiao , and Y. Liu , “ TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, China ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 774 – 784 .
  9. A. Detti and M. Listanti , “ Impact of Segments Aggregation on TCP Reno Flows in Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, New York City, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 1803 – 1812 .
  10. Z. Rosberg , H. L. Vu , M. Zukerman , and J. White , “ Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.   21 , 1187 – 1197 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. L. Vu , A. Zalesky , E. W. M. Wong , Z. Rosberg , M. S. Bilgrami , M. Zukerman , and R. S. Tucker , “ Scalable Performance Evaluation of a Hybrid Optical Switch ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   23 , 2961 – 2973 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. L. Vu and S. Hanly , “ A Study of TCP Performance and Buffer Occupancy Over a Fading Wireless Link ,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), Texas, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2001 ), pp. 3478 – 3482 .
  13. J. Mahdavi and S. Floyd , “ TCP-Friendly Unicast Rate-Based Flow Control ,” Technical note sent to the end2end-interest mailing list, Jan. 8, 1997 .

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. Zukerman , E. Wong , Z. Rosberg , G. M. Lee , and H. L. Vu , “ On Teletraffic Applications to OBS ,” IEEE Commun. Lett.   8 , 116 – 118 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu , C. Qiao , and Y. Liu , “ TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, China ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 774 – 784 .

2003 (1)

Z. Rosberg , H. L. Vu , M. Zukerman , and J. White , “ Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.   21 , 1187 – 1197 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Floyd and V. Paxson , “ Difficulties in simulating the Internet ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   9 , 392 – 403 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Padhye , V. Firoiu , D. F. Towsley , and J. F. Kurose , “ Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   8 , 133 – 145 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Mahdavi and S. Floyd , “ TCP-Friendly Unicast Rate-Based Flow Control ,” Technical note sent to the end2end-interest mailing list, Jan. 8, 1997 .

Bilgrami, M. S.

Cankaya, H. C.

S. Gowda , R. K. Shenai , K. M. Sivalingam , and H. C. Cankaya , “ Performance Evaluation of TCP over Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) WDM Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Anchorage, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2003 ), pp. 1433 – 1437 .

Claffy, K.

K. Claffy , G. Miller , and K. Thompson , “ The Nature of the Beast: Recent Traffic Measurements from an Internet Backbone ,” ( 1998 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.

M. Fomenkov , K. Keys , D. Moore , and K. Claffy , “ Longitudinal study of Internet traffic in 1998-2003 ,” ( 2003 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr_overview.pdf.

Detti, A.

A. Detti and M. Listanti , “ Impact of Segments Aggregation on TCP Reno Flows in Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, New York City, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 1803 – 1812 .

Firoiu, V.

J. Padhye , V. Firoiu , D. F. Towsley , and J. F. Kurose , “ Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   8 , 133 – 145 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Floyd, S.

S. Floyd and V. Paxson , “ Difficulties in simulating the Internet ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   9 , 392 – 403 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Mahdavi and S. Floyd , “ TCP-Friendly Unicast Rate-Based Flow Control ,” Technical note sent to the end2end-interest mailing list, Jan. 8, 1997 .

Fomenkov, M.

M. Fomenkov , K. Keys , D. Moore , and K. Claffy , “ Longitudinal study of Internet traffic in 1998-2003 ,” ( 2003 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr_overview.pdf.

Gowda, S.

S. Gowda , R. K. Shenai , K. M. Sivalingam , and H. C. Cankaya , “ Performance Evaluation of TCP over Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) WDM Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Anchorage, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2003 ), pp. 1433 – 1437 .

Hanly, S.

H. L. Vu and S. Hanly , “ A Study of TCP Performance and Buffer Occupancy Over a Fading Wireless Link ,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), Texas, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2001 ), pp. 3478 – 3482 .

Keys, K.

M. Fomenkov , K. Keys , D. Moore , and K. Claffy , “ Longitudinal study of Internet traffic in 1998-2003 ,” ( 2003 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr_overview.pdf.

Kurose, J. F.

J. Padhye , V. Firoiu , D. F. Towsley , and J. F. Kurose , “ Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   8 , 133 – 145 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. M.

M. Zukerman , E. Wong , Z. Rosberg , G. M. Lee , and H. L. Vu , “ On Teletraffic Applications to OBS ,” IEEE Commun. Lett.   8 , 116 – 118 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Listanti, M.

A. Detti and M. Listanti , “ Impact of Segments Aggregation on TCP Reno Flows in Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, New York City, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 1803 – 1812 .

Liu, Y.

X. Yu , C. Qiao , and Y. Liu , “ TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, China ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 774 – 784 .

Mahdavi, J.

J. Mahdavi and S. Floyd , “ TCP-Friendly Unicast Rate-Based Flow Control ,” Technical note sent to the end2end-interest mailing list, Jan. 8, 1997 .

Miller, G.

K. Claffy , G. Miller , and K. Thompson , “ The Nature of the Beast: Recent Traffic Measurements from an Internet Backbone ,” ( 1998 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.

Moore, D.

M. Fomenkov , K. Keys , D. Moore , and K. Claffy , “ Longitudinal study of Internet traffic in 1998-2003 ,” ( 2003 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr_overview.pdf.

Odlyzko, A. M.

A. M. Odlyzko , “ Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications ,” in Proceedings of SPIE Optical Transmission Systems and Equipment for WDM Networking II , 5247 , 1 – 15 ( 2003 ).

Padhye, J.

J. Padhye , V. Firoiu , D. F. Towsley , and J. F. Kurose , “ Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   8 , 133 – 145 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Paxson, V.

S. Floyd and V. Paxson , “ Difficulties in simulating the Internet ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   9 , 392 – 403 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

X. Yu , C. Qiao , and Y. Liu , “ TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, China ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 774 – 784 .

Rosberg, Z.

H. L. Vu , A. Zalesky , E. W. M. Wong , Z. Rosberg , M. S. Bilgrami , M. Zukerman , and R. S. Tucker , “ Scalable Performance Evaluation of a Hybrid Optical Switch ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   23 , 2961 – 2973 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukerman , E. Wong , Z. Rosberg , G. M. Lee , and H. L. Vu , “ On Teletraffic Applications to OBS ,” IEEE Commun. Lett.   8 , 116 – 118 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Z. Rosberg , H. L. Vu , M. Zukerman , and J. White , “ Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.   21 , 1187 – 1197 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Shenai, R. K.

S. Gowda , R. K. Shenai , K. M. Sivalingam , and H. C. Cankaya , “ Performance Evaluation of TCP over Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) WDM Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Anchorage, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2003 ), pp. 1433 – 1437 .

Sivalingam, K. M.

S. Gowda , R. K. Shenai , K. M. Sivalingam , and H. C. Cankaya , “ Performance Evaluation of TCP over Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) WDM Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Anchorage, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2003 ), pp. 1433 – 1437 .

Thompson, K.

K. Claffy , G. Miller , and K. Thompson , “ The Nature of the Beast: Recent Traffic Measurements from an Internet Backbone ,” ( 1998 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.

Towsley, D. F.

J. Padhye , V. Firoiu , D. F. Towsley , and J. F. Kurose , “ Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   8 , 133 – 145 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

Vu, H. L.

H. L. Vu , A. Zalesky , E. W. M. Wong , Z. Rosberg , M. S. Bilgrami , M. Zukerman , and R. S. Tucker , “ Scalable Performance Evaluation of a Hybrid Optical Switch ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   23 , 2961 – 2973 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukerman , E. Wong , Z. Rosberg , G. M. Lee , and H. L. Vu , “ On Teletraffic Applications to OBS ,” IEEE Commun. Lett.   8 , 116 – 118 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Z. Rosberg , H. L. Vu , M. Zukerman , and J. White , “ Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.   21 , 1187 – 1197 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Vu and S. Hanly , “ A Study of TCP Performance and Buffer Occupancy Over a Fading Wireless Link ,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), Texas, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2001 ), pp. 3478 – 3482 .

White, J.

Z. Rosberg , H. L. Vu , M. Zukerman , and J. White , “ Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.   21 , 1187 – 1197 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Wong, E.

M. Zukerman , E. Wong , Z. Rosberg , G. M. Lee , and H. L. Vu , “ On Teletraffic Applications to OBS ,” IEEE Commun. Lett.   8 , 116 – 118 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Wong, E. W. M.

Yu, X.

X. Yu , C. Qiao , and Y. Liu , “ TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, China ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 774 – 784 .

Zalesky, A.

Zukerman, M.

H. L. Vu , A. Zalesky , E. W. M. Wong , Z. Rosberg , M. S. Bilgrami , M. Zukerman , and R. S. Tucker , “ Scalable Performance Evaluation of a Hybrid Optical Switch ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   23 , 2961 – 2973 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukerman , E. Wong , Z. Rosberg , G. M. Lee , and H. L. Vu , “ On Teletraffic Applications to OBS ,” IEEE Commun. Lett.   8 , 116 – 118 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Z. Rosberg , H. L. Vu , M. Zukerman , and J. White , “ Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.   21 , 1187 – 1197 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Zukerman , E. Wong , Z. Rosberg , G. M. Lee , and H. L. Vu , “ On Teletraffic Applications to OBS ,” IEEE Commun. Lett.   8 , 116 – 118 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

Z. Rosberg , H. L. Vu , M. Zukerman , and J. White , “ Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.   21 , 1187 – 1197 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (2)

J. Padhye , V. Firoiu , D. F. Towsley , and J. F. Kurose , “ Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   8 , 133 – 145 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Floyd and V. Paxson , “ Difficulties in simulating the Internet ,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking   9 , 392 – 403 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Technical note sent to the end2end-interest mailing list, (1)

J. Mahdavi and S. Floyd , “ TCP-Friendly Unicast Rate-Based Flow Control ,” Technical note sent to the end2end-interest mailing list, Jan. 8, 1997 .

Other (7)

H. L. Vu and S. Hanly , “ A Study of TCP Performance and Buffer Occupancy Over a Fading Wireless Link ,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), Texas, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2001 ), pp. 3478 – 3482 .

A. M. Odlyzko , “ Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications ,” in Proceedings of SPIE Optical Transmission Systems and Equipment for WDM Networking II , 5247 , 1 – 15 ( 2003 ).

K. Claffy , G. Miller , and K. Thompson , “ The Nature of the Beast: Recent Traffic Measurements from an Internet Backbone ,” ( 1998 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.

M. Fomenkov , K. Keys , D. Moore , and K. Claffy , “ Longitudinal study of Internet traffic in 1998-2003 ,” ( 2003 ), http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr_overview.pdf.

S. Gowda , R. K. Shenai , K. M. Sivalingam , and H. C. Cankaya , “ Performance Evaluation of TCP over Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) WDM Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Anchorage, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2003 ), pp. 1433 – 1437 .

X. Yu , C. Qiao , and Y. Liu , “ TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, China ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 774 – 784 .

A. Detti and M. Listanti , “ Impact of Segments Aggregation on TCP Reno Flows in Optical Burst Switching Networks ,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, New York City, USA ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 1803 – 1812 .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simplified single-link topology

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

On-off model mean values.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculating fixed point of TCP input load and OBS loss

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Graphical method to find fixed point loss (M=16,K=10,RTT=0.1s).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Input load per source vs. number of output wavelengths.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Loss vs. number of output wavelengths.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Total input load vs. number of output wavelengths.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ B = 1 / T .
μ B = μ p NT λ p .
ρ B = λ B μ B = N λ p μ p = N ρ p .
[ ( M i j ) λ ̂ B + ( i + j ) μ ̂ B ] π i , j = ( M i + 1 j ) λ ̂ B π i 1 , j
+ ( j + 1 ) μ ̂ B π i , j + 1 + ( i + 1 ) μ ̂ B π i + 1 , j .
[ ( M K j ) λ ̂ B + ( K + j ) μ ̂ B ] π K , j = ( M K + 1 j ) λ ̂ B π K 1 , j
+ ( j + 1 ) μ ̂ B π K , j + 1 + ( M K + 1 j ) μ ̂ B π K , j 1 .
Σ i = 0 K Σ j = 0 M K π i , j = 1 .
T o = Σ i = 0 K Σ j = 0 M K ( M i j ) ρ ̂ B π i , j ,
T c = Σ i = 0 K Σ j = 0 M K i π i , j ,
B = T o T c T o .
S ( p ) = 1.5 RTT 1 p .

Metrics