Abstract

The sending rate of commonly used TCP protocols is tightly coupled to packet loss within the network: a high rate of packet loss will cause a sender to slow down, thereby reducing the network load and decreasing subsequent packet loss rates. In this paper, we combine a widely verified source rate TCP model with an Optical Burst Switching (OBS) loss model, to find fixed-point input loads and loss rates for an OBS link carrying TCP traffic. In doing so, we show that if OBS networks are to be efficiently used to carry TCP traffic, many wavelengths with full wavelength conversion are required.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. M. Odlyzko, �??Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications,�?? in Proceedings of SPIE Optical Transmission Systems and Equipment for WDM Networking II, 5247, 1�??15 (2003).
  2. K. Claffy, G. Miller, and K. Thompson, �??The Nature of the Beast: Recent Traffic Measurements from an Internet Backbone,�?? (1998), <a href="http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.">http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.</a>
  3. M. Fomenkov, K. Keys, D. Moore, and K. Claffy, �??Longitudinal study of Internet traffic in 1998-2003,�?? (2003), <a href="http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr overview.pdf.">http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr overview.pdf.</a>
  4. M. Zukerman, E. Wong, Z. Rosberg, G. M. Lee, and H. L. Vu, �??On Teletraffic Applications to OBS,�?? IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 116�??118 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. F. Towsley, and J. F. Kurose, �??Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation,�?? IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 8, 133�??145 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Floyd and V. Paxson, �??Difficulties in simulating the Internet,�?? IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 9, 392�??403 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Gowda, R. K. Shenai, K. M. Sivalingam, and H. C. Cankaya, �??Performance Evaluation of TCP over Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) WDM Networks,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Anchorage, USA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 1433�??1437
  8. X. Yu, C. Qiao, and Y. Liu, �??TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, China (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 774�??784.
  9. A. Detti and M. Listanti, �??Impact of Segments Aggregation on TCP Reno Flows in Optical Burst Switching Networks,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, New York City, USA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 1803�??1812.
  10. Rosberg, H. L. Vu,M. Zukerman and J. White, �??Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1187�??1197 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. L. Vu, A. Zalesky, E. W. M. Wong, Z. Rosberg, M. S. Bilgrami, M. Zukerman, and R. S. Tucker, �??Scalable Performance Evaluation of a Hybrid Optical Switch,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2961�??2973 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. L. Vu and S. Hanly, �??A Study of TCP Performance and Buffer Occupancy Over a Fading Wireless Link,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), Texas, USA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 3478�??3482.
  13. J. Mahdavi and S. Floyd, �??TCP-Friendly Unicast Rate-Based Flow Control,�?? Technical note sent to the end2end-interest mailing list, Jan. 8, 1997.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Zukerman, E. Wong, Z. Rosberg, G. M. Lee, and H. L. Vu, �??On Teletraffic Applications to OBS,�?? IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 116�??118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Global Telecommunications 2001 (1)

H. L. Vu and S. Hanly, �??A Study of TCP Performance and Buffer Occupancy Over a Fading Wireless Link,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), Texas, USA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), pp. 3478�??3482.

IEEE ICC 2003 (1)

S. Gowda, R. K. Shenai, K. M. Sivalingam, and H. C. Cankaya, �??Performance Evaluation of TCP over Optical Burst-Switched (OBS) WDM Networks,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Anchorage, USA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 1433�??1437

IEEE INFOCOM 2002 (1)

A. Detti and M. Listanti, �??Impact of Segments Aggregation on TCP Reno Flows in Optical Burst Switching Networks,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, New York City, USA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 1803�??1812.

IEEE INFOCOM 2004 (1)

X. Yu, C. Qiao, and Y. Liu, �??TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Hong Kong, China (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 774�??784.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

Rosberg, H. L. Vu,M. Zukerman and J. White, �??Performance Analyses of Optical Burst Switching Networks,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1187�??1197 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (2)

J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. F. Towsley, and J. F. Kurose, �??Modeling TCP Reno Performance: A Simple Model and Its Empirical Validation,�?? IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 8, 133�??145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Floyd and V. Paxson, �??Difficulties in simulating the Internet,�?? IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 9, 392�??403 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Proceedings of SPIE (1)

A. M. Odlyzko, �??Internet traffic growth: Sources and implications,�?? in Proceedings of SPIE Optical Transmission Systems and Equipment for WDM Networking II, 5247, 1�??15 (2003).

Other (3)

K. Claffy, G. Miller, and K. Thompson, �??The Nature of the Beast: Recent Traffic Measurements from an Internet Backbone,�?? (1998), <a href="http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.">http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/1998/Inet98/Inet98.html.</a>

M. Fomenkov, K. Keys, D. Moore, and K. Claffy, �??Longitudinal study of Internet traffic in 1998-2003,�?? (2003), <a href="http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr overview.pdf.">http://www.caida.org/outreach/papers/2003/nlanr/nlanr overview.pdf.</a>

J. Mahdavi and S. Floyd, �??TCP-Friendly Unicast Rate-Based Flow Control,�?? Technical note sent to the end2end-interest mailing list, Jan. 8, 1997.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simplified single-link topology

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

On-off model mean values.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculating fixed point of TCP input load and OBS loss

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Graphical method to find fixed point loss (M=16,K=10,RTT=0.1s).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Input load per source vs. number of output wavelengths.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Loss vs. number of output wavelengths.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Total input load vs. number of output wavelengths.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ B = 1 / T .
μ B = μ p NT λ p .
ρ B = λ B μ B = N λ p μ p = N ρ p .
[ ( M i j ) λ ̂ B + ( i + j ) μ ̂ B ] π i , j = ( M i + 1 j ) λ ̂ B π i 1 , j
+ ( j + 1 ) μ ̂ B π i , j + 1 + ( i + 1 ) μ ̂ B π i + 1 , j .
[ ( M K j ) λ ̂ B + ( K + j ) μ ̂ B ] π K , j = ( M K + 1 j ) λ ̂ B π K 1 , j
+ ( j + 1 ) μ ̂ B π K , j + 1 + ( M K + 1 j ) μ ̂ B π K , j 1 .
Σ i = 0 K Σ j = 0 M K π i , j = 1 .
T o = Σ i = 0 K Σ j = 0 M K ( M i j ) ρ ̂ B π i , j ,
T c = Σ i = 0 K Σ j = 0 M K i π i , j ,
B = T o T c T o .
S ( p ) = 1.5 RTT 1 p .

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