Channel waveguides at 1540 nm in X- and Z-cut LiNbO3 are formed by one-step multienergy MeV O2+ implantation. Single perpendicular mode in both planar and channel waveguides is demonstrated. In the ne channel waveguide, double transverse modes are observed because of the large index difference and broad width of the channel. A single transverse mode is obtained in the no channel waveguide. The thickness of the waveguide is less than 2 μm, and the compactness of the waveguide is attributed to the large index difference between the guiding region and the low-index barrier. The mode patterns and the waveguide loss are measured and analyzed. The loss of 0.9 and 0.7 dB/cm are obtained from the no and ne channel waveguides, respectively.
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