Abstract

We demonstrate real-time recording of chemical vapor fluctuations from 22m away with a fast Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer that uses a laser-like infrared probing beam generated from two 10-fs Ti:sapphire lasers. The FTIR’s broad 9–12μm spectrum in the “molecular fingerprint” region is dispersed by fast heterodyne self-scanning, enabling spectra at 2cm-1 resolution to be recorded in 70μs snapshots. We achieve continuous acquisition at a rate of 950 IR spectra per second by actively manipulating the repetition rate of one laser. Potential applications include video-rate chemical imaging and transient spectroscopy of e.g. gas plumes, flames and plasmas, and generally non-repetitive phenomena such as those found in protein folding dynamics and pulsed magnetic fields research.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth , Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry ( Wiley, New York , 1986 ).
  2. R. A. Palmer , J. L. Chao , R. M. Dittmar , V. G. Gregoriou , and S. E. Plunkett , “ Investigation of time-dependent phenomena by use of step-scan FT-IR ,” Appl. Spectrosc.   47 , 1297 – 1310 ( 1993 )
    [Crossref]
  3. B. A. Weinstock , H. Yang , and P. R. Griffiths , “ Determination of the adsorption rates of aldehydes on bare and aminopropylsilyl-modified silica gels by polynomial fitting of ultra-rapid FT-IR data ,” Vib. Spectrosc.   35 , 145 – 152 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Keilmann , C. Gohle , and R. Holzwarth , “ Time-domain mid-infrared frequeny-comb spectrometer ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1542 – 1544 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov (Eds.), Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources ( Springer, Berlin , 2003 ).
  6. D. W. van der Weide and F. Keilmann , “ Coherent periodically pulsed radiation spectrometer ,” US Patent   5 ,748,309 ( 1998 ).
  7. D. W. van der Weide , J. Murakowski , and F. Keilmann , “ Gas-absorption spectroscopy with electronic Terahertz techniques ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   48 , 740 – 743 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. Th. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature (London)   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye , “ Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs ,” Rev. Mod. Phys.   75 , 325 – 342 , ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Zimmermann , Ch. Gohle , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 310 – 312 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. A. Kaindl , D. C. Smith , M. Joschko , M. P. Hasselbeck , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μ m at an 88-MHz repetition rate ,” Opt. Lett.   23 , 861 – 863 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Huber , A. Brodschelm , F. Tauser , and A. Leitenstorfer , “ Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 3191 – 3193 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. A. Kaindl , F. Eickemeyer , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: Experiment and theory ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 1060 – 1062 ( 1999 )
    [Crossref]
  14. Strictly speaking, each beat-frequency amplitude U n is proportional to E n E′ n , the product of two IR amplitudes at slightly offset frequencies, a negligible effect for the purpose of this study.
  15. D. Mittleman (Ed.), Sensing with THz radiation ( Springer, Berlin , 2003 ).
  16. G. Sucha , M. E. Fermann , D. J. Harter , and M. Hofer , “ A New Method for Rapid Temporal Scanning of Ultrafast Lasers ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 605 – 621 ( 1996 )
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand , “ Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip ,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A   362 , 787 – 805 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. Th. Taubner , R. Hillenbrand , and F. Keilmann , “ Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5064 – 5066 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Naumann , D. Helm , and H. Labischinski , “ Microbiological characterizations by FT-IR spectroscopy ,” Nature (London)   351 , 81 – 82 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Diem , M. Romeo , S. Boydston-White , M. Miljkovic , and C. Matthaus , “ A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue (1994–2004) ,” Analyst   129 , 880 – 885 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

B. A. Weinstock , H. Yang , and P. R. Griffiths , “ Determination of the adsorption rates of aldehydes on bare and aminopropylsilyl-modified silica gels by polynomial fitting of ultra-rapid FT-IR data ,” Vib. Spectrosc.   35 , 145 – 152 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand , “ Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip ,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A   362 , 787 – 805 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Th. Taubner , R. Hillenbrand , and F. Keilmann , “ Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5064 – 5066 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

M. Diem , M. Romeo , S. Boydston-White , M. Miljkovic , and C. Matthaus , “ A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue (1994–2004) ,” Analyst   129 , 880 – 885 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zimmermann , Ch. Gohle , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Optical clockwork with an offset-free difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 310 – 312 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann , C. Gohle , and R. Holzwarth , “ Time-domain mid-infrared frequeny-comb spectrometer ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1542 – 1544 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye , “ Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs ,” Rev. Mod. Phys.   75 , 325 – 342 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Th. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature (London)   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. W. van der Weide , J. Murakowski , and F. Keilmann , “ Gas-absorption spectroscopy with electronic Terahertz techniques ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   48 , 740 – 743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

R. Huber , A. Brodschelm , F. Tauser , and A. Leitenstorfer , “ Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 3191 – 3193 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. A. Kaindl , F. Eickemeyer , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: Experiment and theory ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 1060 – 1062 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

G. Sucha , M. E. Fermann , D. J. Harter , and M. Hofer , “ A New Method for Rapid Temporal Scanning of Ultrafast Lasers ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 605 – 621 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Naumann , D. Helm , and H. Labischinski , “ Microbiological characterizations by FT-IR spectroscopy ,” Nature (London)   351 , 81 – 82 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boydston-White, S.

M. Diem , M. Romeo , S. Boydston-White , M. Miljkovic , and C. Matthaus , “ A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue (1994–2004) ,” Analyst   129 , 880 – 885 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber , A. Brodschelm , F. Tauser , and A. Leitenstorfer , “ Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 3191 – 3193 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Chao, J. L.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye , “ Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs ,” Rev. Mod. Phys.   75 , 325 – 342 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

de Haseth, J. A.

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth , Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry ( Wiley, New York , 1986 ).

der Weide, D. W. van

D. W. van der Weide , J. Murakowski , and F. Keilmann , “ Gas-absorption spectroscopy with electronic Terahertz techniques ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   48 , 740 – 743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

D. W. van der Weide and F. Keilmann , “ Coherent periodically pulsed radiation spectrometer ,” US Patent   5 ,748,309 ( 1998 ).

Diem, M.

M. Diem , M. Romeo , S. Boydston-White , M. Miljkovic , and C. Matthaus , “ A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue (1994–2004) ,” Analyst   129 , 880 – 885 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dittmar, R. M.

Eickemeyer, F.

R. A. Kaindl , F. Eickemeyer , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: Experiment and theory ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 1060 – 1062 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

R. A. Kaindl , F. Eickemeyer , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: Experiment and theory ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 1060 – 1062 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

R. A. Kaindl , D. C. Smith , M. Joschko , M. P. Hasselbeck , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μ m at an 88-MHz repetition rate ,” Opt. Lett.   23 , 861 – 863 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Fermann, M. E.

G. Sucha , M. E. Fermann , D. J. Harter , and M. Hofer , “ A New Method for Rapid Temporal Scanning of Ultrafast Lasers ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 605 – 621 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Gohle, C.

Gohle, Ch.

Gregoriou, V. G.

Griffiths, P. R.

B. A. Weinstock , H. Yang , and P. R. Griffiths , “ Determination of the adsorption rates of aldehydes on bare and aminopropylsilyl-modified silica gels by polynomial fitting of ultra-rapid FT-IR data ,” Vib. Spectrosc.   35 , 145 – 152 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth , Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry ( Wiley, New York , 1986 ).

Hänsch, T. W.

Harter, D. J.

G. Sucha , M. E. Fermann , D. J. Harter , and M. Hofer , “ A New Method for Rapid Temporal Scanning of Ultrafast Lasers ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 605 – 621 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Hasselbeck, M. P.

Helm, D.

D. Naumann , D. Helm , and H. Labischinski , “ Microbiological characterizations by FT-IR spectroscopy ,” Nature (London)   351 , 81 – 82 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand , “ Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip ,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A   362 , 787 – 805 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Th. Taubner , R. Hillenbrand , and F. Keilmann , “ Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5064 – 5066 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Hofer, M.

G. Sucha , M. E. Fermann , D. J. Harter , and M. Hofer , “ A New Method for Rapid Temporal Scanning of Ultrafast Lasers ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 605 – 621 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

Huber, R.

R. Huber , A. Brodschelm , F. Tauser , and A. Leitenstorfer , “ Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 3191 – 3193 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Joschko, M.

Kaindl, R. A.

R. A. Kaindl , F. Eickemeyer , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: Experiment and theory ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 1060 – 1062 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

R. A. Kaindl , D. C. Smith , M. Joschko , M. P. Hasselbeck , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μ m at an 88-MHz repetition rate ,” Opt. Lett.   23 , 861 – 863 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann , C. Gohle , and R. Holzwarth , “ Time-domain mid-infrared frequeny-comb spectrometer ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 1542 – 1544 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Th. Taubner , R. Hillenbrand , and F. Keilmann , “ Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5064 – 5066 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand , “ Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip ,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A   362 , 787 – 805 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

D. W. van der Weide , J. Murakowski , and F. Keilmann , “ Gas-absorption spectroscopy with electronic Terahertz techniques ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   48 , 740 – 743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

D. W. van der Weide and F. Keilmann , “ Coherent periodically pulsed radiation spectrometer ,” US Patent   5 ,748,309 ( 1998 ).

Labischinski, H.

D. Naumann , D. Helm , and H. Labischinski , “ Microbiological characterizations by FT-IR spectroscopy ,” Nature (London)   351 , 81 – 82 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber , A. Brodschelm , F. Tauser , and A. Leitenstorfer , “ Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 3191 – 3193 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Matthaus, C.

M. Diem , M. Romeo , S. Boydston-White , M. Miljkovic , and C. Matthaus , “ A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue (1994–2004) ,” Analyst   129 , 880 – 885 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miljkovic, M.

M. Diem , M. Romeo , S. Boydston-White , M. Miljkovic , and C. Matthaus , “ A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue (1994–2004) ,” Analyst   129 , 880 – 885 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakowski, J.

D. W. van der Weide , J. Murakowski , and F. Keilmann , “ Gas-absorption spectroscopy with electronic Terahertz techniques ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   48 , 740 – 743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Naumann, D.

D. Naumann , D. Helm , and H. Labischinski , “ Microbiological characterizations by FT-IR spectroscopy ,” Nature (London)   351 , 81 – 82 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, R. A.

Plunkett, S. E.

Romeo, M.

M. Diem , M. Romeo , S. Boydston-White , M. Miljkovic , and C. Matthaus , “ A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue (1994–2004) ,” Analyst   129 , 880 – 885 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. C.

Sucha, G.

G. Sucha , M. E. Fermann , D. J. Harter , and M. Hofer , “ A New Method for Rapid Temporal Scanning of Ultrafast Lasers ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 605 – 621 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Taubner, Th.

Th. Taubner , R. Hillenbrand , and F. Keilmann , “ Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5064 – 5066 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Tauser, F.

R. Huber , A. Brodschelm , F. Tauser , and A. Leitenstorfer , “ Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 3191 – 3193 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Udem, Th.

Weinstock, B. A.

B. A. Weinstock , H. Yang , and P. R. Griffiths , “ Determination of the adsorption rates of aldehydes on bare and aminopropylsilyl-modified silica gels by polynomial fitting of ultra-rapid FT-IR data ,” Vib. Spectrosc.   35 , 145 – 152 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Woerner, M.

R. A. Kaindl , F. Eickemeyer , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: Experiment and theory ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 1060 – 1062 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

R. A. Kaindl , D. C. Smith , M. Joschko , M. P. Hasselbeck , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μ m at an 88-MHz repetition rate ,” Opt. Lett.   23 , 861 – 863 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

B. A. Weinstock , H. Yang , and P. R. Griffiths , “ Determination of the adsorption rates of aldehydes on bare and aminopropylsilyl-modified silica gels by polynomial fitting of ultra-rapid FT-IR data ,” Vib. Spectrosc.   35 , 145 – 152 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye , “ Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs ,” Rev. Mod. Phys.   75 , 325 – 342 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, M.

Analyst (1)

M. Diem , M. Romeo , S. Boydston-White , M. Miljkovic , and C. Matthaus , “ A decade of vibrational micro-spectroscopy of human cells and tissue (1994–2004) ,” Analyst   129 , 880 – 885 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Huber , A. Brodschelm , F. Tauser , and A. Leitenstorfer , “ Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   76 , 3191 – 3193 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

R. A. Kaindl , F. Eickemeyer , M. Woerner , and T. Elsaesser , “ Broadband phase-matched difference frequency mixing of femtosecond pulses in GaSe: Experiment and theory ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   75 , 1060 – 1062 ( 1999 )
[Crossref]

Th. Taubner , R. Hillenbrand , and F. Keilmann , “ Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 5064 – 5066 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Sucha , M. E. Fermann , D. J. Harter , and M. Hofer , “ A New Method for Rapid Temporal Scanning of Ultrafast Lasers ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   2 , 605 – 621 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

D. W. van der Weide , J. Murakowski , and F. Keilmann , “ Gas-absorption spectroscopy with electronic Terahertz techniques ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   48 , 740 – 743 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

Th. Udem , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Optical frequency metrology ,” Nature (London)   416 , 233 – 237 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Naumann , D. Helm , and H. Labischinski , “ Microbiological characterizations by FT-IR spectroscopy ,” Nature (London)   351 , 81 – 82 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A (1)

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand , “ Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip ,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A   362 , 787 – 805 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye , “ Colloquium: Femtosecond optical frequency combs ,” Rev. Mod. Phys.   75 , 325 – 342 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

US Patent (1)

D. W. van der Weide and F. Keilmann , “ Coherent periodically pulsed radiation spectrometer ,” US Patent   5 ,748,309 ( 1998 ).

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

B. A. Weinstock , H. Yang , and P. R. Griffiths , “ Determination of the adsorption rates of aldehydes on bare and aminopropylsilyl-modified silica gels by polynomial fitting of ultra-rapid FT-IR data ,” Vib. Spectrosc.   35 , 145 – 152 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov (Eds.), Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources ( Springer, Berlin , 2003 ).

P. R. Griffiths and J. A. de Haseth , Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry ( Wiley, New York , 1986 ).

Strictly speaking, each beat-frequency amplitude U n is proportional to E n E′ n , the product of two IR amplitudes at slightly offset frequencies, a negligible effect for the purpose of this study.

D. Mittleman (Ed.), Sensing with THz radiation ( Springer, Berlin , 2003 ).

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