Abstract

This paper presents a technique to expose and characterize nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers. Hole array structures are examined with taper outer diameters ranging from 12.9 μm to 1.6 μm. A combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscope system was used to expose and characterize the arrayed air-silica structures. Results from this combined technique are presented which resolve hole-to-hole pitch sizes and hole diameters in the order of 120 nm and 60 nm, respectively.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, �??Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1338�??1340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integrated Opt. (1)

Youngchun Youk, Dug Young Kim and Kun Wook Park, �??Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber,�?? Fiber Integrated Opt. 23, 439�??446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. L. Williamson and M. J. Miles , �??Melt-drawn scanning near-field optical microscopy probe profiles,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4804�??4812 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biochem. Molecular Toxicology (1)

S. Choudhuri, �??Microarrays in biology and medicine,�?? J. Biochem. Molecular Toxicology 18, 171�??179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech. (1)

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick and P. J.Bennett, �??Holey optical fibers: efficient modal model,�?? J. Lightwave Tech. 17, 1093�??1102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

V. Hodzic, J. Orloff and C. Davis, �??Focused ion beam created periodic structures on tapered optical fibers,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2711�??2714 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

S. T. Huntington, K. Lyytikainen, and J. Canning, �??Analysis and removal of fracture damage during and subsequent to holey fiber cleaving,�?? Opt. Express 11, 535�??540 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-6-535.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-6-535.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lizé, E. C. Mägi, V. G. Ta�??eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel and B. J. Eggleton, �??Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter,�?? Opt. Express 12, 3209�??3217 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Huntington, J. Katsifolis, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, J. Zagari, L. W. Cahill, and J. D. Love, �??Retaining and characterising nano-structure within tapered air-silica structured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Express 11, 98�??104 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-2-98.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-2-98.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Magi, P. Steinvurzel and B. J. Eggleton, �??Tapered photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Express 12, 776�??784 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-776.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-776.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell and M. W. Mason, �??Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2864�??2869 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2864.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2864.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster and A. L. Gaeta, �??Ultra-low threshold supercontinuum generation in sub-wavelength waveguides,�?? Opt. Express 12, 3137�??3143 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3137.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3137.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. A. Birks, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell and D. F. Murphy, �??Photonic crystal fiber devices,�?? in Fiber-based Component Fabrication, Testing, and Connectorization, Proc. SPIE 4943, 142�??151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks and P. St. J. Russell, �??Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,�?? Science 282, 1476�??1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Orloff, M. Utlaut and L. W. Swanson, High resolution focused ion beams (Kluwer Academic, New York, 2003).

P. Olivero, S. Rubanov, P. Reichart, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, J. Rabeau, A. D. Greentree, J. Salzman, D. Moore, D. N. Jamieson and S. Prawer, �??Ion beam assisted lift-off technique for three-dimensional micromachining of free standing single-crystal diamond,�?? in press Adv. Mater.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (2461 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical microscope images of a mechanically cleaved air-silica structured optical fibre with an outer diameter (OD) = 100μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (b) show SEM micrographs of the tapered fiber prior to FIB cleaving and (c), (d) show the tapered fiber after 2.9 μm of silica has been removed with the FIB in order to expose the hole array.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The video screen grab shows the instant before 2.9 μm of the tip of the taper is totally removed due to the FIB-based cleaving process (AVI, 2,520 kb).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FIB-cleaved fiber ends: (a) Optical image where the OD = 12.9 μm, ʌ ~ 890 nm and SEM micrograph images where (b) the OD = 7.2 μm, ʌ ~ 581 nm, (c) the OD = 3.5 μm, ʌ ~ 246 nm and (d) the OD = 1.6 μm, ʌ ~ 120 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

This plot shows a linear relationship between the hole pitch (ʌ) and the outer diameter (OD) of the tapered photonic crystal fibers.

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