Abstract

We present the Erbium 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 complete polarized spectroscopic investigation on a series of Er3+,Ce3+:BaY2F8 single crystals as a function of Cerium concentration. The main results of room temperature lifetime investigation show that the 4I13/2 lifetime reduces from 15.6 ms to 10 ms, the 4I11/2 lifetime reduces from 8.3 ms to 0.2 ms and 4S3/2 lifetime reduces from 420 to 110 μs when adding 4% Ce-codoping. Moreover, in the same experimental conditions, the fluorescence intensity from 4I13/2 increases by four times when adding 4%Ce, and the intensity of the 3 μm 4I11/24I13/2 transition becomes undetectable. The experimental data are interpreted with a rate equation model. The obtained results could be interesting in perspective of obtaining a low-threshold 1.5 μm Er laser.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Agnesi , A. Guandalini , A. Lucca , E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , and D. Dell’Acqua “ Medium-power diode-pumped Nd:BaY 2 F 8 laser ”. Opt. Express   11 , 1149 – 1155 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-10-1149
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J.J. Zayhowski and J. Harrison , “ Miniature solid-state lasers ” in Handbook of Photonics , M.C. Gupta , ed. ( CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. , 1997 )
  3. W. Koechner , Solid State Laser Engineering , 5th edition, ( Springer, Berlin , 1999 )
  4. A. A. Kaminskii , Crystalline lasers: physical processes and operating schemes , ( CRC Press, Boca Raton , 1996 ).
  5. H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. A. McFarlane , “ Upconversion laser in BaY 2 F 8 :Er 5% pumped by ground-state and excited-state absorption ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   11 , 871 – 880 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. V.P. Gaponstev , S.M. Matitsin , A.A. Isyneev , and V.B. Kravchenko , “ Erbium glass lasers and their applications ,” Opt. Laser Technol.   14 , 189 – 196 ( 1982 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Jiang , J. Myers , D. Rhonehouse , M. Myers , R. Belford , and S. Hamlin , “ Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass ,” Kigre, Hilton Head Island , 1990 .
  9. R. Fluck , U. Keller , E. Gini , and H. Melchior , “ Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser ”, OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers , W.R. Bosenberg and M.M. Fejer eds. ( OSA, Washington, DC 1998 ) 146 – 149 .
  10. P. Laporta , S. Longhi , S. Taccheo , O. Svelto , and G. Sacchi , “ Single-mode cw erbium-ytterbium glass laser at 1.5 μ m ,” Opt. Lett.   18 , 31 – 33 , ( 1993 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y G Choi , K H Kim , S H Park , and J Heo , “ Comparative study of energy transfers from Er 3+ to Ce 3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 3832 – 3839 , ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Strohofer and A. Polman , “ Enhancement of Er3+4 I 13/2 population in Y 2 O 3 by energy transfer to Ce 3+ ,” Opt. Mat.   17 , 445 – 451 , ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. V.A. Lebedev , I.V. Voroshilov , B.V. Ignatiev , V.A. Isaev , A.N. Gavrilenko , and V.F. Pisarenko , “ Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd 4 Si 3 O 13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals ,” CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000 , paper CWF30.
  15. E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Akasaka , Y. Kubota , S. Sakaguchi , I. White , and J. Pan ,“ 100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 836 – 838 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Guy , M. F. Joubert , B. Jacquier , and M. Bouazaoui , “ Excited-state absorption in BaY 2 F 8 :Nd 3+ ,” Phys. Rev. B   47 , 11001–6 ( 1993 ).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen , “ Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μ m laser operation in Er ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1197 – 1208 , ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).
  22. J. C. Brice , The growth of crystals from liquids , ( North-Holland, Amsterdam , 1973 )
  23. B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen , “ Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   18 , 925 , ( 1982 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).

2003 (3)

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Akasaka , Y. Kubota , S. Sakaguchi , I. White , and J. Pan ,“ 100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 836 – 838 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

A. Agnesi , A. Guandalini , A. Lucca , E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , and D. Dell’Acqua “ Medium-power diode-pumped Nd:BaY 2 F 8 laser ”. Opt. Express   11 , 1149 – 1155 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-10-1149
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. Strohofer and A. Polman , “ Enhancement of Er3+4 I 13/2 population in Y 2 O 3 by energy transfer to Ce 3+ ,” Opt. Mat.   17 , 445 – 451 , ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

Y G Choi , K H Kim , S H Park , and J Heo , “ Comparative study of energy transfers from Er 3+ to Ce 3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 3832 – 3839 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Fluck , U. Keller , E. Gini , and H. Melchior , “ Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser ”, OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers , W.R. Bosenberg and M.M. Fejer eds. ( OSA, Washington, DC 1998 ) 146 – 149 .

1997 (1)

H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

P. Laporta , S. Longhi , S. Taccheo , O. Svelto , and G. Sacchi , “ Single-mode cw erbium-ytterbium glass laser at 1.5 μ m ,” Opt. Lett.   18 , 31 – 33 , ( 1993 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Guy , M. F. Joubert , B. Jacquier , and M. Bouazaoui , “ Excited-state absorption in BaY 2 F 8 :Nd 3+ ,” Phys. Rev. B   47 , 11001–6 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen , “ Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μ m laser operation in Er ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1197 – 1208 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen , “ Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   18 , 925 , ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

V.P. Gaponstev , S.M. Matitsin , A.A. Isyneev , and V.B. Kravchenko , “ Erbium glass lasers and their applications ,” Opt. Laser Technol.   14 , 189 – 196 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Agnesi, A.

Akasaka, Y.

Y. Akasaka , Y. Kubota , S. Sakaguchi , I. White , and J. Pan ,“ 100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 836 – 838 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen , “ Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   18 , 925 , ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Bae, I. K.

G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).

Belford, R.

S. Jiang , J. Myers , D. Rhonehouse , M. Myers , R. Belford , and S. Hamlin , “ Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass ,” Kigre, Hilton Head Island , 1990 .

Benitez, J. M.

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Borel, C.

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Bouazaoui, M.

S. Guy , M. F. Joubert , B. Jacquier , and M. Bouazaoui , “ Excited-state absorption in BaY 2 F 8 :Nd 3+ ,” Phys. Rev. B   47 , 11001–6 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Brice, J. C.

J. C. Brice , The growth of crystals from liquids , ( North-Holland, Amsterdam , 1973 )

Butachin, A. V.

H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Chae, S. C.

G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).

Choi, Y G

Y G Choi , K H Kim , S H Park , and J Heo , “ Comparative study of energy transfers from Er 3+ to Ce 3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 3832 – 3839 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Dell’Acqua, D.

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Findeisen, J.

H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Fluck, R.

R. Fluck , U. Keller , E. Gini , and H. Melchior , “ Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser ”, OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers , W.R. Bosenberg and M.M. Fejer eds. ( OSA, Washington, DC 1998 ) 146 – 149 .

Fukue, K.

Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Gaponstev, V.P.

V.P. Gaponstev , S.M. Matitsin , A.A. Isyneev , and V.B. Kravchenko , “ Erbium glass lasers and their applications ,” Opt. Laser Technol.   14 , 189 – 196 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Gavrilenko, A.N.

V.A. Lebedev , I.V. Voroshilov , B.V. Ignatiev , V.A. Isaev , A.N. Gavrilenko , and V.F. Pisarenko , “ Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd 4 Si 3 O 13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals ,” CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000 , paper CWF30.

Gini, E.

R. Fluck , U. Keller , E. Gini , and H. Melchior , “ Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser ”, OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers , W.R. Bosenberg and M.M. Fejer eds. ( OSA, Washington, DC 1998 ) 146 – 149 .

Guandalini, A.

Guy, S.

S. Guy , M. F. Joubert , B. Jacquier , and M. Bouazaoui , “ Excited-state absorption in BaY 2 F 8 :Nd 3+ ,” Phys. Rev. B   47 , 11001–6 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Hamlin, S.

S. Jiang , J. Myers , D. Rhonehouse , M. Myers , R. Belford , and S. Hamlin , “ Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass ,” Kigre, Hilton Head Island , 1990 .

Harrison, J.

J.J. Zayhowski and J. Harrison , “ Miniature solid-state lasers ” in Handbook of Photonics , M.C. Gupta , ed. ( CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. , 1997 )

Heo, J

Y G Choi , K H Kim , S H Park , and J Heo , “ Comparative study of energy transfers from Er 3+ to Ce 3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 3832 – 3839 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Higashihata, M.

Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Ignatiev, B.V.

V.A. Lebedev , I.V. Voroshilov , B.V. Ignatiev , V.A. Isaev , A.N. Gavrilenko , and V.F. Pisarenko , “ Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd 4 Si 3 O 13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals ,” CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000 , paper CWF30.

Isaev, V.A.

V.A. Lebedev , I.V. Voroshilov , B.V. Ignatiev , V.A. Isaev , A.N. Gavrilenko , and V.F. Pisarenko , “ Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd 4 Si 3 O 13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals ,” CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000 , paper CWF30.

Isyneev, A.A.

V.P. Gaponstev , S.M. Matitsin , A.A. Isyneev , and V.B. Kravchenko , “ Erbium glass lasers and their applications ,” Opt. Laser Technol.   14 , 189 – 196 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Jacquier, B.

S. Guy , M. F. Joubert , B. Jacquier , and M. Bouazaoui , “ Excited-state absorption in BaY 2 F 8 :Nd 3+ ,” Phys. Rev. B   47 , 11001–6 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Jang, Y. N.

G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).

Jenssen, H. P.

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen , “ Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μ m laser operation in Er ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1197 – 1208 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen , “ Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   18 , 925 , ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang , J. Myers , D. Rhonehouse , M. Myers , R. Belford , and S. Hamlin , “ Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass ,” Kigre, Hilton Head Island , 1990 .

Joubert, M. F.

S. Guy , M. F. Joubert , B. Jacquier , and M. Bouazaoui , “ Excited-state absorption in BaY 2 F 8 :Nd 3+ ,” Phys. Rev. B   47 , 11001–6 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Kaminskii, A. A.

H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kaminskii , Crystalline lasers: physical processes and operating schemes , ( CRC Press, Boca Raton , 1996 ).

Kanto, S.

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

R. Fluck , U. Keller , E. Gini , and H. Melchior , “ Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser ”, OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers , W.R. Bosenberg and M.M. Fejer eds. ( OSA, Washington, DC 1998 ) 146 – 149 .

Kim, K H

Y G Choi , K H Kim , S H Park , and J Heo , “ Comparative study of energy transfers from Er 3+ to Ce 3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 3832 – 3839 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Knowles, D. S.

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen , “ Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μ m laser operation in Er ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1197 – 1208 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner , Solid State Laser Engineering , 5th edition, ( Springer, Berlin , 1999 )

Kravchenko, V.B.

V.P. Gaponstev , S.M. Matitsin , A.A. Isyneev , and V.B. Kravchenko , “ Erbium glass lasers and their applications ,” Opt. Laser Technol.   14 , 189 – 196 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Kubota, Y.

Y. Akasaka , Y. Kubota , S. Sakaguchi , I. White , and J. Pan ,“ 100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 836 – 838 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Kumar, G. A.

G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).

Laporta, P.

Lebedev, V.A.

V.A. Lebedev , I.V. Voroshilov , B.V. Ignatiev , V.A. Isaev , A.N. Gavrilenko , and V.F. Pisarenko , “ Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd 4 Si 3 O 13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals ,” CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000 , paper CWF30.

Lejus, A.-M.

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Lis, D.A.

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Longhi, S.

Lucca, A.

Matitsin, S.M.

V.P. Gaponstev , S.M. Matitsin , A.A. Isyneev , and V.B. Kravchenko , “ Erbium glass lasers and their applications ,” Opt. Laser Technol.   14 , 189 – 196 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

McFarlane, R. A.

Melchior, H.

R. Fluck , U. Keller , E. Gini , and H. Melchior , “ Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser ”, OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers , W.R. Bosenberg and M.M. Fejer eds. ( OSA, Washington, DC 1998 ) 146 – 149 .

Meng, Z.

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Moon, H. S.

G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).

Myers, J.

S. Jiang , J. Myers , D. Rhonehouse , M. Myers , R. Belford , and S. Hamlin , “ Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass ,” Kigre, Hilton Head Island , 1990 .

Myers, M.

S. Jiang , J. Myers , D. Rhonehouse , M. Myers , R. Belford , and S. Hamlin , “ Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass ,” Kigre, Hilton Head Island , 1990 .

Nakata, Y.

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, N.

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Okada, T.

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

Y. Akasaka , Y. Kubota , S. Sakaguchi , I. White , and J. Pan ,“ 100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 836 – 838 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Park, S H

Y G Choi , K H Kim , S H Park , and J Heo , “ Comparative study of energy transfers from Er 3+ to Ce 3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 3832 – 3839 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Peuser, P.

H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Pisarenko, V.F.

V.A. Lebedev , I.V. Voroshilov , B.V. Ignatiev , V.A. Isaev , A.N. Gavrilenko , and V.F. Pisarenko , “ Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd 4 Si 3 O 13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals ,” CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000 , paper CWF30.

Polman, A.

C. Strohofer and A. Polman , “ Enhancement of Er3+4 I 13/2 population in Y 2 O 3 by energy transfer to Ce 3+ ,” Opt. Mat.   17 , 445 – 451 , ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Rhonehouse, D.

S. Jiang , J. Myers , D. Rhonehouse , M. Myers , R. Belford , and S. Hamlin , “ Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass ,” Kigre, Hilton Head Island , 1990 .

Riman, R.

G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).

Sacchi, G.

Sakaguchi, S.

Y. Akasaka , Y. Kubota , S. Sakaguchi , I. White , and J. Pan ,“ 100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 836 – 838 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Sani, E.

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

A. Agnesi , A. Guandalini , A. Lucca , E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , and D. Dell’Acqua “ Medium-power diode-pumped Nd:BaY 2 F 8 laser ”. Opt. Express   11 , 1149 – 1155 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-10-1149
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simondi-Teisseire, B.

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, V.A.

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Strohofer, C.

C. Strohofer and A. Polman , “ Enhancement of Er3+4 I 13/2 population in Y 2 O 3 by energy transfer to Ce 3+ ,” Opt. Mat.   17 , 445 – 451 , ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Subbotin, K.A.

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Svelto, O.

Taccheo, S.

Templier, R.

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Teshima, T.

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Toncelli, A.

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

A. Agnesi , A. Guandalini , A. Lucca , E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , and D. Dell’Acqua “ Medium-power diode-pumped Nd:BaY 2 F 8 laser ”. Opt. Express   11 , 1149 – 1155 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-10-1149
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonelli, M.

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

A. Agnesi , A. Guandalini , A. Lucca , E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , and D. Dell’Acqua “ Medium-power diode-pumped Nd:BaY 2 F 8 laser ”. Opt. Express   11 , 1149 – 1155 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-10-1149
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viana, B.

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Vivien, D.

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Voroshilov, I.V.

V.A. Lebedev , I.V. Voroshilov , B.V. Ignatiev , V.A. Isaev , A.N. Gavrilenko , and V.F. Pisarenko , “ Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd 4 Si 3 O 13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals ,” CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000 , paper CWF30.

White, I.

Y. Akasaka , Y. Kubota , S. Sakaguchi , I. White , and J. Pan ,“ 100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 836 – 838 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Wyon, C.

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Yoshimura, T.

Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Zayhowski, J.J.

J.J. Zayhowski and J. Harrison , “ Miniature solid-state lasers ” in Handbook of Photonics , M.C. Gupta , ed. ( CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. , 1997 )

Zharikov, E.V.

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Akasaka , Y. Kubota , S. Sakaguchi , I. White , and J. Pan ,“ 100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF ,” Electron. Lett.   39 , 836 – 838 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

D. S. Knowles and H. P. Jenssen , “ Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 μ m laser operation in Er ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   28 , 1197 – 1208 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen , “ Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   18 , 925 , ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

B. Simondi-Teisseire , B. Viana , A.-M. Lejus , J. M. Benitez , D. Vivien , C. Borel , R. Templier , and C. Wyon , “ Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 μ m (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 crystals ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 2004 – 2009 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. J. Eichler , J. Findeisen , B. Liu , A. A. Kaminskii , A. V. Butachin , and P. Peuser , “ Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 μ m Er 3+ :BaY 2 F 8 laser ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.   3 , 90 – 94 , ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Kubota , T. Teshima , N. Nishimura , S. Kanto , S. Sakaguchi , Z. Meng , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. ,   15 , 525 – 527 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Y G Choi , K H Kim , S H Park , and J Heo , “ Comparative study of energy transfers from Er 3+ to Ce 3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 3832 – 3839 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Z. Meng , T. Yoshimura , K. Fukue , M. Higashihata , Y. Nakata , and T. Okada , “ Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er 3+ -doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce 3+ codoping ,” J. Appl. Phys.   88 , 2187 – 2190 , ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

E. Sani , A. Toncelli , M. Tonelli , D.A. Lis , E.V. Zharikov , K.A. Subbotin , and V.A. Smirnov . “ Effect of Cerium codoping in Er 3+ ,Ce 3+ :NaLa(MoO 4 ) 2 crystals ,” J. Appl. Phys.   97 , 123531 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

G. A. Kumar , R. Riman , S. C. Chae , Y. N. Jang , I. K. Bae , and H. S. Moon , “ Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF 2 :Er 3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 μ m amplification ,” J. Appl. Phys.   95 , 3243–49 , ( 2004 ).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

V.P. Gaponstev , S.M. Matitsin , A.A. Isyneev , and V.B. Kravchenko , “ Erbium glass lasers and their applications ,” Opt. Laser Technol.   14 , 189 – 196 ( 1982 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mat. (1)

C. Strohofer and A. Polman , “ Enhancement of Er3+4 I 13/2 population in Y 2 O 3 by energy transfer to Ce 3+ ,” Opt. Mat.   17 , 445 – 451 , ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers (1)

R. Fluck , U. Keller , E. Gini , and H. Melchior , “ Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser ”, OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers , W.R. Bosenberg and M.M. Fejer eds. ( OSA, Washington, DC 1998 ) 146 – 149 .

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Guy , M. F. Joubert , B. Jacquier , and M. Bouazaoui , “ Excited-state absorption in BaY 2 F 8 :Nd 3+ ,” Phys. Rev. B   47 , 11001–6 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

J. C. Brice , The growth of crystals from liquids , ( North-Holland, Amsterdam , 1973 )

V.A. Lebedev , I.V. Voroshilov , B.V. Ignatiev , V.A. Isaev , A.N. Gavrilenko , and V.F. Pisarenko , “ Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd 4 Si 3 O 13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals ,” CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000 , paper CWF30.

S. Jiang , J. Myers , D. Rhonehouse , M. Myers , R. Belford , and S. Hamlin , “ Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass ,” Kigre, Hilton Head Island , 1990 .

J.J. Zayhowski and J. Harrison , “ Miniature solid-state lasers ” in Handbook of Photonics , M.C. Gupta , ed. ( CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. , 1997 )

W. Koechner , Solid State Laser Engineering , 5th edition, ( Springer, Berlin , 1999 )

A. A. Kaminskii , Crystalline lasers: physical processes and operating schemes , ( CRC Press, Boca Raton , 1996 ).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the Er-Ce energy transfer processes in BaYF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Unpolarized absorption spectrum of the sample with the 0.2% Ce concentration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarized absorption spectrum of the 4I15/24I11/2 transition of Er.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ec emission spectrum of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the normalized emission intensities as a function of the Ce concentration: black squares: 1.5 μm transition; red triangles: 4S3/2 transition.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Polarized Erbium emission cross sections.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Gain cross section in the E∫∫b, H∫∫c polarization of Er:BaYF.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematics of the model used for Eqs. 5–8.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of the ratio between the inversion coefficients γEr-Ce /γEr in codoped samples and the inversion coefficient γEr in the solely-Er doped one for the same pump level.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Erbium lifetimes as a function of the Cerium codoping.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Erbium 4S3/2 lifetimes as a function of the Cerium codoping.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

4 I 11 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 5 2 ( Ce ) 4 I 13 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 7 2 ( Ce )
4 S 3 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 5 2 ( Ce ) 4 F 9 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 7 2 ( Ce )
4 F 9 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 5 2 ( Ce ) 4 I 9 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 7 2 ( Ce )
σ gain ( λ ) = γ σ em ( λ ) ( 1 γ ) σ abs ( λ )
{ d N 2 dt = P N 0 N 2 τ 2 ( a ) d N 1 dt = β 21 · N 2 τ 2 N 1 τ 1 N 2 + N 1 + N 0 = N Er ( c ) ( b )
γ = N 1 N 1 + N 0
P = 1 τ 1 β 21 · γ Er 1 γ Er
{ d N 2 dt = P N 0 N 2 τ 2 β Ce · N 2 τ 2 ( a ) d N 1 dt = β 21 · N 2 τ 2 + β Ce · N 2 τ 2 N 1 τ 1 * N 2 + N 1 + N 0 = N Er ( c ) ( b )
1 τ 2 + β Ce τ 2 = 1 τ 2 *
γ Er Ce = τ 1 * τ 2 * ( β 21 + β Ce ) γ Er γ Er [ τ 1 * τ 2 * ( β 21 + β Ce ) τ 1 τ 2 β 21 ] + τ 1 τ 2 β 21

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