Abstract

We present the Erbium 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 complete polarized spectroscopic investigation on a series of Er3+,Ce3+:BaY2F8 single crystals as a function of Cerium concentration. The main results of room temperature lifetime investigation show that the 4I13/2 lifetime reduces from 15.6 ms to 10 ms, the 4I11/2 lifetime reduces from 8.3 ms to 0.2 ms and 4S3/2 lifetime reduces from 420 to 110 μs when adding 4% Ce-codoping. Moreover, in the same experimental conditions, the fluorescence intensity from 4I13/2 increases by four times when adding 4%Ce, and the intensity of the 3 μm 4I11/24I13/2 transition becomes undetectable. The experimental data are interpreted with a rate equation model. The obtained results could be interesting in perspective of obtaining a low-threshold 1.5 μm Er laser.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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CLEO-Europe/EQEC 2000

V.A.Lebedev, I.V.Voroshilov, B.V.Ignatiev, V.A. Isaev, A.N. Gavrilenko, V.F. Pisarenko, �??Spectroscopic and kinetic investigations of erbium in Er,Ce:CaGd4Si3O13 (Er,Ce:CGS) crystals,�?? CLEO-Europe/EQEC, Techn. Digest, Paris, France, September 2000, paper CWF30.

Electron. Lett.

Y. Akasaka, Y. Kubota, S. Sakaguchi, I. White and J. Pan,�??100 nm gain bandwidth amplifier based on 980 nm pumped cerium codoped fluoride EDF,�?? Electron. Lett. 39, 836-838 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Handbook of Photonics

J.J. Zayhowski and J. Harrison, �??Miniature solid-state lasers�?? in Handbook of Photonics, M.C. Gupta, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. S. Knowles, H. P. Jenssen, �??Upconversion versus Pr-deactivation for efficient 3 µm laser operation in Er,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1197-1208, (1992).
[CrossRef]

B.Simondi-Teisseire, B.Viana, A.-M.Lejus, J. M. Benitez, D. Vivien, C. Borel, R. Templier,C. Wyon, �??Room-temperature cw laser operation at ~1.55 µm (eye-safe range) of Yb:Er and Yb:Er:Ce:Ca2Al2SiO7 crystals,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2004-2009, (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Aull, and H. P. Jenssen, �??Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925, (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. J. Eichler, J. Findeisen, B. Liu, A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butachin, P. Peuser, �??Highly efficient diode-pumped 3 µm Er3+:BaY2F8 laser,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 90-94, (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

Y. Kubota, T. Teshima, N. Nishimura, S. Kanto, S. Sakaguchi, Z. Meng, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, �??Novel Er and Ce Codoped Fluoride Fiber Amplifier for Low-Noise and High-Efficient Operation With 980-nm Pumping,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., 15, 525-527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, D.A.Lis, E.V.Zharikov, K.A. Subbotin, V.A.Smirnov. �??Effect of Cerium codoping in Er3+,Ce3+:NaLa(MoO4)2 crystals,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123531, (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kumar, R. Riman, S. C. Chae, Y. N. Jang, I. K. Bae, H. S. Moon, �??Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of CaF2:Er3+ single crystal for highly efficient 1.53 µm amplification,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3243-49, (2004).

Choi Y G, Kim K H, Park S H, Heo J, �??Comparative study of energy transfers from Er3+ to Ce3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3832-3839, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Meng,T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, �??Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yeld of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2187-2190, (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Kigre 1990

S. Jiang, J. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, M. Myers, R. Belford, S. Hamlin, �??Laser and thermal performance of a new Erbium doped phosphate glass,�?? Kigre, Hilton Head Island, 1990.

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

V.P.Gaponstev, S.M.Matitsin, A.A.Isyneev, V.B.Kravchenko, �??Erbium glass lasers and their applications,�?? Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189-196 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mat.

C. Strohofer, A. Polman, �??Enhancement of Er3+ 4I13/2 population in Y2O3 by energy transfer to Ce3+,�?? Opt. Mat. 17, 445-451, (2001).
[CrossRef]

OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers

R. Fluck, U. Keller, E. Gini, H. Melchior, �??Eyesafe pulsed microchip laser�??, OSA TOPS 19 Adv. Solid State Lasers, W.R. Bosenberg and M.M. Fejer eds. (OSA, Washington, DC 1998) 146-149.

Phys. Rev. B

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, M. Bouazaoui, �??Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+,�?? Phys. Rev. B 47, 11001-6 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. C. Brice, The growth of crystals from liquids, (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1973)

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 5th edition, (Springer, Berlin, 1999)

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline lasers: physical processes and operating schemes, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1996).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the Er-Ce energy transfer processes in BaYF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Unpolarized absorption spectrum of the sample with the 0.2% Ce concentration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarized absorption spectrum of the 4I15/24I11/2 transition of Er.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ec emission spectrum of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the normalized emission intensities as a function of the Ce concentration: black squares: 1.5 μm transition; red triangles: 4S3/2 transition.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Polarized Erbium emission cross sections.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Gain cross section in the E∫∫b, H∫∫c polarization of Er:BaYF.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematics of the model used for Eqs. 5–8.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of the ratio between the inversion coefficients γEr-Ce /γEr in codoped samples and the inversion coefficient γEr in the solely-Er doped one for the same pump level.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Erbium lifetimes as a function of the Cerium codoping.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Erbium 4S3/2 lifetimes as a function of the Cerium codoping.

Equations (10)

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4 I 11 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 5 2 ( Ce ) 4 I 13 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 7 2 ( Ce )
4 S 3 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 5 2 ( Ce ) 4 F 9 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 7 2 ( Ce )
4 F 9 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 5 2 ( Ce ) 4 I 9 2 ( Er ) , 2 F 7 2 ( Ce )
σ gain ( λ ) = γ σ em ( λ ) ( 1 γ ) σ abs ( λ )
{ d N 2 dt = P N 0 N 2 τ 2 ( a ) d N 1 dt = β 21 · N 2 τ 2 N 1 τ 1 N 2 + N 1 + N 0 = N Er ( c ) ( b )
γ = N 1 N 1 + N 0
P = 1 τ 1 β 21 · γ Er 1 γ Er
{ d N 2 dt = P N 0 N 2 τ 2 β Ce · N 2 τ 2 ( a ) d N 1 dt = β 21 · N 2 τ 2 + β Ce · N 2 τ 2 N 1 τ 1 * N 2 + N 1 + N 0 = N Er ( c ) ( b )
1 τ 2 + β Ce τ 2 = 1 τ 2 *
γ Er Ce = τ 1 * τ 2 * ( β 21 + β Ce ) γ Er γ Er [ τ 1 * τ 2 * ( β 21 + β Ce ) τ 1 τ 2 β 21 ] + τ 1 τ 2 β 21

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