Abstract

A detailed analysis of mode-locking is presented in which the nonlinear mode-coupling behavior in a waveguide array, dual-core fiber, and/or fiber array is used to achieve stable and robust passive modelocking. By using the discrete, nearest-neighbor spatial coupling of these nonlinear mode-coupling devices, low-intensity light can be transferred to the neighboring waveguides and ejected (attenuated) from the laser cavity. In contrast, higher intensity light is self-focused in the launch waveguide and remains largely unaffected. This nonlinear effect, which is a discrete Kerr lens effect, leads to the temporal intensity discrimination required in the laser cavity for mode-locking. Numerical studies of this pulse shaping mechanism show that using current waveguide arrays, fiber-arrays, or dual-core fibers in conjunction with standard optical fiber technology, stable and robustmode-locked soliton-like pulses are produced.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  34. T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, F. Lederer, �??Nonlinearity and Disorder in Fiber Arrays,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  39. F. Smetkala, C. Qu´emard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barth´el´emy, and C. DeAngelis, �??Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices,�?? J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 239, 139-142 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J.M. Harbold, F. ¨O . Ilday, and F.W.Wise, �??Highly Nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for All-Optical Switching,�?? IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  41. T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnnermann, and F. Lederer, �??Nonlinearity and Disorder in Fiber Arrays,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. N. Kutz, B. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, �??Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain deple- tion and recovery,�?? IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Trillo and S. Wabnitz, �??Nonlinear nonreciprocity in a coherent mismatched directional coupler,�?? App. Phys. Lett. 49, 752-754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dissipative Solitons (1)

J. N. Kutz, �??Mode-Locking of Fiber Lasers via Nonlinear Mode-Coupling,�?? Dissipative Solitons, Lecture Notes in Physics, Eds. N. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, 241-265, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2005).

Electron. Lett. (5)

K. Tamura, H. A. Haus and E. P. Ippen, �??Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser,�?? Electron. Lett. 28, 2226-2228, (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Duling, �??Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser,�?? Electron. Lett. 27, 544-545 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas and M. W. Phillips, �??Self-starting, passively modelocked erbium fiber laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch,�?? Electron. Lett. 27, 542-544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, �??High repetition rate figure eight laser with extracavity feedback,�?? Electron. Lett. 28, 1894-1896 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohoma, and T. Kaino, �??Fabrication of Bragg grating in chalcogenide glass fiber using transverse holographic method,�?? Electron. Lett., 32, 1611-1613 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. M. Jensen, �??The nonlinear coherent coupler.�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE18, 1580-1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, �??Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 29, 2325-2333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (4)

J. N. Kutz, B. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. Knox, �??Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain deple- tion and recovery,�?? IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1749-1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen and K. Tamura, �??Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers,�?? IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 30, 200-208, (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, �??A theory of forced mode locking,�?? IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 11, 323-330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Intrachat and J. N. Kutz, �??Theory and simulation of passive mode-locking dynamics using a long period fiber grating,�?? IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1572-1578 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. A. Haus, �??Mode-Locking of Lasers,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173-1185, (2000).

B. Collings , S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, W. Knox, K. Bergman, �??Short cavity Erbium/Ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065-1075 (1998).

IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. (1)

J.M. Harbold, F. ¨O . Ilday, and F.W.Wise, �??Highly Nonlinear Ge-As-Se and Ge-As-S-Se Glasses for All-Optical Switching,�?? IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 14, 822-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

F. Smetkala, C. Qu´emard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barth´el´emy, and C. DeAngelis, �??Chalcogenide glasses with large nonlinear refractive indices,�?? J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. (1)

Y. Oh, S. L. Doty, J. W. Haus, and R. L. Fork, �??Robust operation of a dual-core fiber ring laser,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2502-2507 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man and H. Y. Tam, �??Stimulated soliton pulse formation and its mechanism in a passively mode-locked fibre soliton laser,�?? Opt. Commun. 165, 189-194, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (14)

J. Proctor and J. N. Kutz, �??Theory and Simulation of Passive Mode-Locking with Waveguide Arrays,�?? Opt. Lett. 13, 2013-2015 (2005).

M. E. Fermann, M. J. Andrejco, Y. Silberberg and M. L. Stock, �??Passive mode-locking by using nonlinear polarization evolution in a polarizing-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 447-449, (1993).

G. Lenz, J. Zimmerman, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Sp¨alter, R. E. Slusher, S. -W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, �??Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,�?? Opt. Lett., 25, 254-256 (2000).

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, E. M. Wright, and G. I. Stegeman, �??Soliton switching in fiber nonlinear directional couplers,�?? Opt. Lett. 13, 672-674 (1988).

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, �??Discrete self-focusing in nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides,�?? Opt. Lett. 13, 794-796 (1988).

S. R. Friberg, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, B. G. Sfez, and P. S. Smith, �??Femtosecond switching in a dualcore- fiber nonlinear coupler,�?? Opt. Lett. 13, 904-906 (1988).

S. Trillo and S. Wabnitz, �??Weak-pulse-activated coherent soliton switching in nonlinear couplers,�?? Opt. Lett. 16, 1-3 (1991).

T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Krausz, �??Kerr lens mode locking,�?? Opt. Lett. 17, 1292-1294 (1992).

H. G. Winful and D. T. Walton, �??Passive mode locking through nonlinear coupling in a dual-core fiber laser,�?? Opt. Lett., 17, 1688-1690 (1992).

T. P.White, R. C.McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, M. N. Litchinitser, and B. J. Eggleton, �??Resonance and scattering in microstructured optical fibers,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1977-1979 (2002).

F. X. K¨artner and U. Keller, �??Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 16-18 (1995).

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. DeSouza, W. J. Jan and J. E. Cunningham, �??Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode-locking in solid-state lasers,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 1406-1408 (1995).

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, �??Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).

F. O. Ilday, F.W.Wise, and T. Sosnowski, �??High-energy femtosecond stretched-pulse fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1531-1533 (2002).

OSA Technical Digest Series (1)

L. Spinelli, B. Couilland, N. Goldblatt, and D. K. Negus, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 10 (1991) OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP7.

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, �??Discrete selftrapping soliton interactions, and beam steering in nonlinear waveguide arrays,�?? Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnermann, F. Lederer, �??Nonlinearity and Disorder in Fiber Arrays,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. T¨unnnermann, and F. Lederer, �??Nonlinearity and Disorder in Fiber Arrays,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd and J. S. Aitchison, �??Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. N. Duling III and M. L. Dennis, Compact sources of ultrashort pulses. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

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