Abstract

We propose an optical performance monitoring scheme that combines a tunable narrowband optical filter with asynchronous histograms to create density plots that represent probability maps of both optical power and frequency. Simulations are used to investigate the technique, and show that measurements at transmitters and filters can directly detect optical chirp. The effects of several optical impairments are also shown, comprising misaligned filters in the optical path, dispersion, nonlinear effects and optical signal to noise ratio. The density plots are affected differently by each of these impairments.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C.P. Larsen and P.O. Andersson, "Signal Quality Monitoring in Optical Networks," SPIE Optical Networks Magazine, Oct 2000, 17 (2000).
  2. J.D. Downie and D.J. Tebben, "Performance monitoring of optical networks with synchronous and asynchronous sampling," OFC '01, paper WDD50 (2001).
  3. N. Hanik, et al., "Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels," Electron. Lett. 35, 403-404 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Shake and H. Takara, "Chromatic dispersion dependence of asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation of NRZ signal," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2154-2161 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C.M. Weinert, et al., "Histogram method for identification and evaluation of crosstalk," Electron. Lett. 36, 558-559 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Hinton, "Histogram analysis for optical monitoring," COIN/ACOFT '03 (2003).
  7. K. Clarke, et al., "Considerations for the histogram approach to optical performance monitoring," OECC/IOOC '01 (2001).
  8. W. Yang, "Sensitivity issues of optical performance monitoring," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 107-109 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D.F. Hewitt, "Design and performance of optical vestigial sideband (VSB) filters for 40 Gbit/s modulated systems," COIN/ACOFT '03 (2003).
  10. Q. Yu, et al., "Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phaseshift detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 2267-2271 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. OMMIC, "CGY2112UH/C1 TIA ", <a href="http://www.ommic.com/data/circuits/pdf/fl_cgy2112uhc1.pdf">http://www.ommic.com/data/circuits/pdf/fl_cgy2112uhc1.pdf</a>
  12. VPIsystems, "VPItransmissionMaker�?�", <a href="http://www.vpisystems.com.">http://www.vpistems.com</a>
  13. M. Smit and C.v. Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

COIN/ACOFT '03 (2)

K. Hinton, "Histogram analysis for optical monitoring," COIN/ACOFT '03 (2003).

D.F. Hewitt, "Design and performance of optical vestigial sideband (VSB) filters for 40 Gbit/s modulated systems," COIN/ACOFT '03 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. Hanik, et al., "Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels," Electron. Lett. 35, 403-404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.M. Weinert, et al., "Histogram method for identification and evaluation of crosstalk," Electron. Lett. 36, 558-559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Yang, "Sensitivity issues of optical performance monitoring," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 107-109 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Smit and C.v. Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

OECC/IOOC '01 (1)

K. Clarke, et al., "Considerations for the histogram approach to optical performance monitoring," OECC/IOOC '01 (2001).

OFC '01 (1)

J.D. Downie and D.J. Tebben, "Performance monitoring of optical networks with synchronous and asynchronous sampling," OFC '01, paper WDD50 (2001).

SPIE Optical Networks Magazine (1)

C.P. Larsen and P.O. Andersson, "Signal Quality Monitoring in Optical Networks," SPIE Optical Networks Magazine, Oct 2000, 17 (2000).

Other (2)

OMMIC, "CGY2112UH/C1 TIA ", <a href="http://www.ommic.com/data/circuits/pdf/fl_cgy2112uhc1.pdf">http://www.ommic.com/data/circuits/pdf/fl_cgy2112uhc1.pdf</a>

VPIsystems, "VPItransmissionMaker�?�", <a href="http://www.vpisystems.com.">http://www.vpistems.com</a>

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: GIF (658 KB)     
» Media 2: GIF (943 KB)     
» Media 3: GIF (693 KB)     
» Media 4: GIF (919 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Broadband monitor structure. FPF = Fabry-Perot filter, TIA = transimpedance amplifier

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

WDM system used for simulations to evaluate monitor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Broadband density plot at Fig. 2, point (a), showing channel chirp and features of interest. Shading density corresponds to relative optical power in dB.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(658 KB) Animation of broadband density plots at Fig. 2, point (a) with AWG detuning from 0 to +25 GHz in 5 GHz steps, with compensation for additional loss

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(943 KB) Animation of broadband density plots at Fig. 2, point (b) for transmission distances from 0 to 100 km SMF in 10 km steps (dispersion from 0 to 1700 ps/nm in 170 ps/nm steps), with numerical compensation for attenuation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(693 KB) Animation of broadband density plots at Fig. 2, point (c), with launch powers from 0 to 10.5 dBm/channel, in 1.5 dB steps and with constant OSNR and receiver noise.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(920 KB) Animation of broadband density plots at Fig. 2, point (a), with variable ASE loading to give OSNR of 50 dB, then from 30 to 18 dB in 1.5 dB steps.

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