Abstract

A cavity stabilized, SESAM mode-locked Cr4+:YAG laser capable of generating sub-100 fs pulses has been developed. Locking the 130-MHz pulse repetition frequency to that of a hydrogen maser-referenced frequency synthesizer provides a 30-nm wide frequency comb for the 1530-nm wavelength region. In conjunction with a pair of acetylene stabilized, external cavity diode lasers, this laser provides a high precision measurement tool for the determination of acetylene transition frequencies.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. N. Eckstein , A. I. Ferguson , and T. W. Hänsch , “ High-resolution two-photon spectroscopy with picosecond light pulses ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   40 , 847 – 850 ( 1978 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. Th. Udem , J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D 1 line with a mode-locked laser ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 3568 – 3571 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers ,” Optics. Comm.   172 , 59 – 68 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Rauschenberger , T. M. Fortier , D. J. Jones , J. Ye , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Control of the frequency comb from a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser ,” Optics Express   10 , 1404 – 1410 ( 2002 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
    [PubMed]
  7. K. Kim , B. R. Washburn , G. Wilpers , C. W. Oates , L. Hollberg , N. R. Newbury , and S. A. Diddams , “ Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 932 – 934 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Czajkowski , A. A. Madej , and P. Dubé , “ Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν 1 + ν 3 ) overtone band of 13 C 2 H 2 ,” Opt. Comm   234 , 259 – 268 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Czajkowski , J. E. Bernard , A. A. Madej , and R. S. Windeler , “ Absolute frequency measurement of acetylene transitions in the region of 1540 nm ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 45 – 50 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. J. Quinn , “ Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001) ,” Metrologia   40 , 103 – 133 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Naumov , E. Sorokin , V. L. Kalashnikov , G. Tempea , and I. T. Sorokina , “ Self-starting five optical cycle pulse generation in Cr 4+ :YAG laser ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 1 – 11 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Alcock , P. Poole , and B.T. Sullivan , “ Hybrid semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors as passive mode-locking elements ,” Proc. SPIE   TD01 , 12 – 14 ( 2002 ).
  15. M.J. Lederer , B. Luther-Davies , H.H. Tan , and C. Jagadish , “ GaAs based anti-resonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and ion implantation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 3428 – 3430 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Onae , K. Okumura , F.-L. Hong , H. Matsumoto , and K. Nakagawa , “ Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked laser ,” Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 666 – 667 ( IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ , 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. A. Madej , J. E. Bernard , A. J. Alcock , A. Czajkowski , and S. Chepurov are preparing a manuscript to be called, “ Accurate absolute frequencies of the v 1 +v 3 band of 13 C 2 H 2 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb .”

2005 (2)

K. Kim , B. R. Washburn , G. Wilpers , C. W. Oates , L. Hollberg , N. R. Newbury , and S. A. Diddams , “ Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 932 – 934 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Czajkowski , A. A. Madej , and P. Dubé , “ Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν 1 + ν 3 ) overtone band of 13 C 2 H 2 ,” Opt. Comm   234 , 259 – 268 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. Czajkowski , J. E. Bernard , A. A. Madej , and R. S. Windeler , “ Absolute frequency measurement of acetylene transitions in the region of 1540 nm ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 45 – 50 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

T. J. Quinn , “ Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001) ,” Metrologia   40 , 103 – 133 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

S. Naumov , E. Sorokin , V. L. Kalashnikov , G. Tempea , and I. T. Sorokina , “ Self-starting five optical cycle pulse generation in Cr 4+ :YAG laser ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 1 – 11 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Alcock , P. Poole , and B.T. Sullivan , “ Hybrid semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors as passive mode-locking elements ,” Proc. SPIE   TD01 , 12 – 14 ( 2002 ).

J. Rauschenberger , T. M. Fortier , D. J. Jones , J. Ye , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Control of the frequency comb from a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser ,” Optics Express   10 , 1404 – 1410 ( 2002 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

Th. Udem , J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D 1 line with a mode-locked laser ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 3568 – 3571 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers ,” Optics. Comm.   172 , 59 – 68 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M.J. Lederer , B. Luther-Davies , H.H. Tan , and C. Jagadish , “ GaAs based anti-resonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and ion implantation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 3428 – 3430 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

J. N. Eckstein , A. I. Ferguson , and T. W. Hänsch , “ High-resolution two-photon spectroscopy with picosecond light pulses ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   40 , 847 – 850 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Alcock, A. J.

A. A. Madej , J. E. Bernard , A. J. Alcock , A. Czajkowski , and S. Chepurov are preparing a manuscript to be called, “ Accurate absolute frequencies of the v 1 +v 3 band of 13 C 2 H 2 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb .”

Alcock, J.

J. Alcock , P. Poole , and B.T. Sullivan , “ Hybrid semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors as passive mode-locking elements ,” Proc. SPIE   TD01 , 12 – 14 ( 2002 ).

Au, J.Aus der

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Barwood, G. P.

C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Bernard, J. E.

A. Czajkowski , J. E. Bernard , A. A. Madej , and R. S. Windeler , “ Absolute frequency measurement of acetylene transitions in the region of 1540 nm ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 45 – 50 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. A. Madej , J. E. Bernard , A. J. Alcock , A. Czajkowski , and S. Chepurov are preparing a manuscript to be called, “ Accurate absolute frequencies of the v 1 +v 3 band of 13 C 2 H 2 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb .”

Braun, B.

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Chepurov, S.

A. A. Madej , J. E. Bernard , A. J. Alcock , A. Czajkowski , and S. Chepurov are preparing a manuscript to be called, “ Accurate absolute frequencies of the v 1 +v 3 band of 13 C 2 H 2 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb .”

Cundiff, S. T.

J. Rauschenberger , T. M. Fortier , D. J. Jones , J. Ye , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Control of the frequency comb from a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser ,” Optics Express   10 , 1404 – 1410 ( 2002 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
[PubMed]

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S.T.

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J.E.

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Czajkowski, A.

A. Czajkowski , A. A. Madej , and P. Dubé , “ Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν 1 + ν 3 ) overtone band of 13 C 2 H 2 ,” Opt. Comm   234 , 259 – 268 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. Czajkowski , J. E. Bernard , A. A. Madej , and R. S. Windeler , “ Absolute frequency measurement of acetylene transitions in the region of 1540 nm ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 45 – 50 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. A. Madej , J. E. Bernard , A. J. Alcock , A. Czajkowski , and S. Chepurov are preparing a manuscript to be called, “ Accurate absolute frequencies of the v 1 +v 3 band of 13 C 2 H 2 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb .”

Diddams, S. A.

K. Kim , B. R. Washburn , G. Wilpers , C. W. Oates , L. Hollberg , N. R. Newbury , and S. A. Diddams , “ Stabilized frequency comb with a self-referenced femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 932 – 934 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubé, P.

A. Czajkowski , A. A. Madej , and P. Dubé , “ Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν 1 + ν 3 ) overtone band of 13 C 2 H 2 ,” Opt. Comm   234 , 259 – 268 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Eckstein, J. N.

J. N. Eckstein , A. I. Ferguson , and T. W. Hänsch , “ High-resolution two-photon spectroscopy with picosecond light pulses ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   40 , 847 – 850 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Edwards, C. S.

C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, A. I.

J. N. Eckstein , A. I. Ferguson , and T. W. Hänsch , “ High-resolution two-photon spectroscopy with picosecond light pulses ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   40 , 847 – 850 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Fortier, T. M.

J. Rauschenberger , T. M. Fortier , D. J. Jones , J. Ye , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Control of the frequency comb from a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser ,” Optics Express   10 , 1404 – 1410 ( 2002 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
[PubMed]

Gill, P.

C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Th. Udem , J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D 1 line with a mode-locked laser ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 3568 – 3571 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers ,” Optics. Comm.   172 , 59 – 68 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. N. Eckstein , A. I. Ferguson , and T. W. Hänsch , “ High-resolution two-photon spectroscopy with picosecond light pulses ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   40 , 847 – 850 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem , J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D 1 line with a mode-locked laser ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 3568 – 3571 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers ,” Optics. Comm.   172 , 59 – 68 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Hong, F.-L.

A. Onae , K. Okumura , F.-L. Hong , H. Matsumoto , and K. Nakagawa , “ Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked laser ,” Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 666 – 667 ( IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ , 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Jagadish, C.

M.J. Lederer , B. Luther-Davies , H.H. Tan , and C. Jagadish , “ GaAs based anti-resonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and ion implantation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 3428 – 3430 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Jan, W.Y.

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

J. Rauschenberger , T. M. Fortier , D. J. Jones , J. Ye , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Control of the frequency comb from a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser ,” Optics Express   10 , 1404 – 1410 ( 2002 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
[PubMed]

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Kalashnikov, V. L.

S. Naumov , E. Sorokin , V. L. Kalashnikov , G. Tempea , and I. T. Sorokina , “ Self-starting five optical cycle pulse generation in Cr 4+ :YAG laser ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 1 – 11 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

Knox, W.H.

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Lea, S. N.

C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Lederer, M.J.

M.J. Lederer , B. Luther-Davies , H.H. Tan , and C. Jagadish , “ GaAs based anti-resonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and ion implantation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 3428 – 3430 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

M.J. Lederer , B. Luther-Davies , H.H. Tan , and C. Jagadish , “ GaAs based anti-resonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and ion implantation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 3428 – 3430 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Madej, A. A.

A. Czajkowski , A. A. Madej , and P. Dubé , “ Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν 1 + ν 3 ) overtone band of 13 C 2 H 2 ,” Opt. Comm   234 , 259 – 268 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. Czajkowski , J. E. Bernard , A. A. Madej , and R. S. Windeler , “ Absolute frequency measurement of acetylene transitions in the region of 1540 nm ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 45 – 50 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. A. Madej , J. E. Bernard , A. J. Alcock , A. Czajkowski , and S. Chepurov are preparing a manuscript to be called, “ Accurate absolute frequencies of the v 1 +v 3 band of 13 C 2 H 2 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb .”

Margolis, H. S.

C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, H.

A. Onae , K. Okumura , F.-L. Hong , H. Matsumoto , and K. Nakagawa , “ Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked laser ,” Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 666 – 667 ( IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ , 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, K.

A. Onae , K. Okumura , F.-L. Hong , H. Matsumoto , and K. Nakagawa , “ Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked laser ,” Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 666 – 667 ( IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ , 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Naumov, S.

S. Naumov , E. Sorokin , V. L. Kalashnikov , G. Tempea , and I. T. Sorokina , “ Self-starting five optical cycle pulse generation in Cr 4+ :YAG laser ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 1 – 11 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

Oates, C. W.

Okumura, K.

A. Onae , K. Okumura , F.-L. Hong , H. Matsumoto , and K. Nakagawa , “ Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked laser ,” Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 666 – 667 ( IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ , 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Onae, A.

A. Onae , K. Okumura , F.-L. Hong , H. Matsumoto , and K. Nakagawa , “ Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked laser ,” Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 666 – 667 ( IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ , 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Poole, P.

J. Alcock , P. Poole , and B.T. Sullivan , “ Hybrid semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors as passive mode-locking elements ,” Proc. SPIE   TD01 , 12 – 14 ( 2002 ).

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn , “ Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001) ,” Metrologia   40 , 103 – 133 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

J. Rauschenberger , T. M. Fortier , D. J. Jones , J. Ye , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Control of the frequency comb from a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser ,” Optics Express   10 , 1404 – 1410 ( 2002 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
[PubMed]

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem , J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D 1 line with a mode-locked laser ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 3568 – 3571 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers ,” Optics. Comm.   172 , 59 – 68 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Rowley, W. R. C.

C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Sorokin, E.

S. Naumov , E. Sorokin , V. L. Kalashnikov , G. Tempea , and I. T. Sorokina , “ Self-starting five optical cycle pulse generation in Cr 4+ :YAG laser ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 1 – 11 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Sorokina, I. T.

S. Naumov , E. Sorokin , V. L. Kalashnikov , G. Tempea , and I. T. Sorokina , “ Self-starting five optical cycle pulse generation in Cr 4+ :YAG laser ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 1 – 11 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, B.T.

J. Alcock , P. Poole , and B.T. Sullivan , “ Hybrid semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors as passive mode-locking elements ,” Proc. SPIE   TD01 , 12 – 14 ( 2002 ).

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Tan, H.H.

M.J. Lederer , B. Luther-Davies , H.H. Tan , and C. Jagadish , “ GaAs based anti-resonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and ion implantation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 3428 – 3430 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Tempea, G.

S. Naumov , E. Sorokin , V. L. Kalashnikov , G. Tempea , and I. T. Sorokina , “ Self-starting five optical cycle pulse generation in Cr 4+ :YAG laser ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 1 – 11 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, S.

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Udem, Th.

J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers ,” Optics. Comm.   172 , 59 – 68 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Th. Udem , J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D 1 line with a mode-locked laser ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 3568 – 3571 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Washburn, B. R.

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Wilpers, G.

Windeler, R. S.

A. Czajkowski , J. E. Bernard , A. A. Madej , and R. S. Windeler , “ Absolute frequency measurement of acetylene transitions in the region of 1540 nm ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 45 – 50 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

J. Rauschenberger , T. M. Fortier , D. J. Jones , J. Ye , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Control of the frequency comb from a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser ,” Optics Express   10 , 1404 – 1410 ( 2002 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

H. R. Telle , G. Steinmeyer , A. E. Dunlop , J. Stenger , D. H. Sutter , and U. Keller , “ Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation ,” Appl. Phys. B   69 , 327 – 332 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

A. Czajkowski , J. E. Bernard , A. A. Madej , and R. S. Windeler , “ Absolute frequency measurement of acetylene transitions in the region of 1540 nm ,” Appl. Phys. B   79 , 45 – 50 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

S. Naumov , E. Sorokin , V. L. Kalashnikov , G. Tempea , and I. T. Sorokina , “ Self-starting five optical cycle pulse generation in Cr 4+ :YAG laser ,” Appl. Phys. B   76 , 1 – 11 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

C. S. Edwards , H. S. Margolis , G. P. Barwood , S. N. Lea , P. Gill , and W. R. C. Rowley , “ High-accuracy frequency atlas of 13 C 2 H 2 in the 1.5μm region ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 977 – 983 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M.J. Lederer , B. Luther-Davies , H.H. Tan , and C. Jagadish , “ GaAs based anti-resonant Fabry-Perot saturable absorber fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and ion implantation ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   70 , 3428 – 3430 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron. (2)

U. Keller , K. J. Weingarten , F. X. Kärtner , D. Kopf , B. Braun , I. D. Jung , R. Fluck , C. Hönninger , N. Matuschek , and J.Aus der Au , “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 435 – 453 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors ,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

T. J. Quinn , “ Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001) ,” Metrologia   40 , 103 – 133 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Comm (1)

A. Czajkowski , A. A. Madej , and P. Dubé , “ Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν 1 + ν 3 ) overtone band of 13 C 2 H 2 ,” Opt. Comm   234 , 259 – 268 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Express (1)

J. Rauschenberger , T. M. Fortier , D. J. Jones , J. Ye , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Control of the frequency comb from a mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser ,” Optics Express   10 , 1404 – 1410 ( 2002 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-24-1404
[PubMed]

Optics. Comm. (1)

J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , Th. Udem , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers ,” Optics. Comm.   172 , 59 – 68 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. N. Eckstein , A. I. Ferguson , and T. W. Hänsch , “ High-resolution two-photon spectroscopy with picosecond light pulses ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   40 , 847 – 850 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Th. Udem , J. Reichert , R. Holzwarth , and T. W. Hänsch , “ Absolute optical frequency measurement of the Cesium D 1 line with a mode-locked laser ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   82 , 3568 – 3571 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Alcock , P. Poole , and B.T. Sullivan , “ Hybrid semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors as passive mode-locking elements ,” Proc. SPIE   TD01 , 12 – 14 ( 2002 ).

Science (1)

D. J. Jones , S. A. Diddams , J. K. Ranka , A. Stentz , R. S. Windeler , J. L. Hall , and S. T. Cundiff , “ Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis ,” Science   288 , 635 – 639 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Onae , K. Okumura , F.-L. Hong , H. Matsumoto , and K. Nakagawa , “ Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked laser ,” Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, pp. 666 – 667 ( IEEE Press, Piscataway NJ , 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. A. Madej , J. E. Bernard , A. J. Alcock , A. Czajkowski , and S. Chepurov are preparing a manuscript to be called, “ Accurate absolute frequencies of the v 1 +v 3 band of 13 C 2 H 2 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb .”

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the cavity stabilized Cr4+:YAG laser system.CM, chirped mirror; PZT, piezo-electric translator

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Autocorrelation traces and spectra for the Cr4+:YAG laser; (a,b) Kerr lens mode-locked operation (c,d) SESAM stabilized mode-locking. The indicated FWHM pulse durations are based on a sech2 pulse shape. For comparison the absorption spectrum for C2H2 is shown in (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Structure of the hybrid SESAM device, (a) intermediate structure (b) final structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dynamic response of the SESAM before (a) and after (b) ion implantation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the experimental setup used to measure the beats between the Cr:YAG comb and the radiation from two acetylene stabilized external cavity diode lasers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of measured frequency intervals using the Cr:YAG frequency comb for selected 13C2H2 reference lines relative to a standard laser stabilized to the P(16) line. Also shown is the determined absolute frequency of each line. The results are compared with absolute Ti:Sapphire comb measurements (in parentheses) of the same reference lines as described in Ref. [9].

Equations (1)

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Δf = ( m n ) f rep ± f t

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