Abstract

We present here the experimental results from research conducted on negative refraction and focusing by a two-dimensional (2D) left-handed metamaterial (LHM) slab. By measuring the refracted electromagnetic (EM) waves from a LHM slab, we find an effective refractive index of -1.86. A 2D scanning transmission measurement technique is used to measure the intensity distribution of the EM waves that radiate from the point source. The flat lens behavior of a 2D LHM slab is demonstrated for two different point source distances of ds = 0.5λ and λ. The full widths at half maximum of the focused beams are 0.36λ and 0.4λ, respectively, which are both below the diffraction limit.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago , “ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.   10 , 504 ( 1968 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 489 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “ Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction ,” Science   292 , 77 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , K. Li , B. E. Koltenbah , and M. Tanielian , “ Experimental Verification and Simulation of Negative Index of Refraction Using Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 107401 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. A. Houck , J. B. Brock , and I. L. Chuang , “ Experimental Observations of a Left-Handed Material That Obeys Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 137401 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. Aydin , K. Guven , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 124102 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Aydin and E. Ozbay , “ Negative refraction through impedance matched left-handed metamaterial slab ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B , (to be published).
  11. K. Aydin , K. Guven , M. Kafesaki , L. Zhang , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2623 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Notomi , “ Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refraction like behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap ,” Phys. Rev. B   62 , 10696 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index ” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 201104 (R) ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , E. Ozbay , S. Foteinopoulou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals ,” Nature   423 , 604 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , S. Foteinopolou , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   91 , 207401 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , P. Vodo , and S. Sridhar , “ Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction ,” Nature   426 , 404 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Guven , K. Aydin , K. B. Alici , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 205125 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. B. Pendry , “ Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   85 , 3966 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. Grbic and G. V. Eleftheriades , “ Overcoming the Diffraction Limit with a Planar Left-Handed Transmission-Line Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 117403 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. N. Fang and X. Zhang , “ Imaging properties of a metamaterial superlens ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 161 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
    [Crossref]
  22. A. N. Lagarkov and V. N. Kissel , “ Near-Perfect Imaging in a Focusing System Based on a Left-Handed-Material Plate ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 077401 –1 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals ” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 045115 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  24. N. Fang , H. Lee , C. Sun , and X. Zhang , “ Sub-diffraction Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens ,” Science   308 , 534 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz , “ Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 02113 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. Vodo , P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , and S. Sridhar , “ Focusing by plano-concave lens using negative refraction ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201108 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  28. W. T. Lu and S. Sridhar , “ Flat lens without optical axis: Theory of Imaging ,” arXiv:cond-mat/0501715, ( 2005 ).

2005 (4)

K. Aydin , K. Guven , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 124102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

N. Fang , H. Lee , C. Sun , and X. Zhang , “ Sub-diffraction Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens ,” Science   308 , 534 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz , “ Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 02113 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

P. Vodo , P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , and S. Sridhar , “ Focusing by plano-concave lens using negative refraction ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201108 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. N. Lagarkov and V. N. Kissel , “ Near-Perfect Imaging in a Focusing System Based on a Left-Handed-Material Plate ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 077401 –1 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aydin , K. Guven , M. Kafesaki , L. Zhang , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2623 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Guven , K. Aydin , K. B. Alici , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 205125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

A. Grbic and G. V. Eleftheriades , “ Overcoming the Diffraction Limit with a Planar Left-Handed Transmission-Line Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 117403 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

N. Fang and X. Zhang , “ Imaging properties of a metamaterial superlens ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 161 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , E. Ozbay , S. Foteinopoulou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals ,” Nature   423 , 604 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , S. Foteinopolou , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   91 , 207401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , P. Vodo , and S. Sridhar , “ Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction ,” Nature   426 , 404 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , K. Li , B. E. Koltenbah , and M. Tanielian , “ Experimental Verification and Simulation of Negative Index of Refraction Using Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 107401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Houck , J. B. Brock , and I. L. Chuang , “ Experimental Observations of a Left-Handed Material That Obeys Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 137401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals ” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 045115 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index ” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 201104 (R) ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 489 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “ Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction ,” Science   292 , 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Notomi , “ Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refraction like behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap ,” Phys. Rev. B   62 , 10696 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry , “ Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   85 , 3966 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago , “ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.   10 , 504 ( 1968 ).
[Crossref]

Alici, K. B.

K. Guven , K. Aydin , K. B. Alici , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 205125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin , K. Guven , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 124102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

K. Guven , K. Aydin , K. B. Alici , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 205125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin , K. Guven , M. Kafesaki , L. Zhang , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2623 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , E. Ozbay , S. Foteinopoulou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals ,” Nature   423 , 604 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , S. Foteinopolou , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   91 , 207401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay , “ Negative refraction through impedance matched left-handed metamaterial slab ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B , (to be published).

Brock, J. B.

A. A. Houck , J. B. Brock , and I. L. Chuang , “ Experimental Observations of a Left-Handed Material That Obeys Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 137401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, I. L.

A. A. Houck , J. B. Brock , and I. L. Chuang , “ Experimental Observations of a Left-Handed Material That Obeys Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 137401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , E. Ozbay , S. Foteinopoulou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals ,” Nature   423 , 604 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , S. Foteinopolou , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   91 , 207401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eleftheriades, G. V.

A. Grbic and G. V. Eleftheriades , “ Overcoming the Diffraction Limit with a Planar Left-Handed Transmission-Line Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 117403 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang , H. Lee , C. Sun , and X. Zhang , “ Sub-diffraction Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens ,” Science   308 , 534 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang and X. Zhang , “ Imaging properties of a metamaterial superlens ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 161 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Foteinopolou, S.

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , S. Foteinopolou , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   91 , 207401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foteinopoulou, S.

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , E. Ozbay , S. Foteinopoulou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals ,” Nature   423 , 604 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grbic, A.

A. Grbic and G. V. Eleftheriades , “ Overcoming the Diffraction Limit with a Planar Left-Handed Transmission-Line Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 117403 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , K. Li , B. E. Koltenbah , and M. Tanielian , “ Experimental Verification and Simulation of Negative Index of Refraction Using Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 107401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guven, K.

K. Aydin , K. Guven , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 124102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

K. Guven , K. Aydin , K. B. Alici , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 205125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin , K. Guven , M. Kafesaki , L. Zhang , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2623 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Houck, A. A.

A. A. Houck , J. B. Brock , and I. L. Chuang , “ Experimental Observations of a Left-Handed Material That Obeys Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 137401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals ” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 045115 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index ” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 201104 (R) ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals ” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 045115 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index ” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 201104 (R) ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Kafesaki, M.

Kissel, V. N.

A. N. Lagarkov and V. N. Kissel , “ Near-Perfect Imaging in a Focusing System Based on a Left-Handed-Material Plate ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 077401 –1 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koltenbah, B. E.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , K. Li , B. E. Koltenbah , and M. Tanielian , “ Experimental Verification and Simulation of Negative Index of Refraction Using Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 107401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagarkov, A. N.

A. N. Lagarkov and V. N. Kissel , “ Near-Perfect Imaging in a Focusing System Based on a Left-Handed-Material Plate ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 077401 –1 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

N. Fang , H. Lee , C. Sun , and X. Zhang , “ Sub-diffraction Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens ,” Science   308 , 534 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , K. Li , B. E. Koltenbah , and M. Tanielian , “ Experimental Verification and Simulation of Negative Index of Refraction Using Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 107401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, W. T.

P. Vodo , P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , and S. Sridhar , “ Focusing by plano-concave lens using negative refraction ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201108 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , P. Vodo , and S. Sridhar , “ Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction ,” Nature   426 , 404 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Lu and S. Sridhar , “ Flat lens without optical axis: Theory of Imaging ,” arXiv:cond-mat/0501715, ( 2005 ).

Luo, C.

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals ” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 045115 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index ” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 201104 (R) ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 489 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, J. A.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi , “ Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refraction like behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap ,” Phys. Rev. B   62 , 10696 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

K. Aydin , K. Guven , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 124102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

K. Guven , K. Aydin , K. B. Alici , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 205125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin , K. Guven , M. Kafesaki , L. Zhang , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2623 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , E. Ozbay , S. Foteinopoulou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals ,” Nature   423 , 604 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , S. Foteinopolou , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   91 , 207401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay , “ Negative refraction through impedance matched left-handed metamaterial slab ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B , (to be published).

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , K. Li , B. E. Koltenbah , and M. Tanielian , “ Experimental Verification and Simulation of Negative Index of Refraction Using Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 107401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parimi, P. V.

P. Vodo , P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , and S. Sridhar , “ Focusing by plano-concave lens using negative refraction ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201108 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , P. Vodo , and S. Sridhar , “ Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction ,” Nature   426 , 404 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals ” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 045115 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index ” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 201104 (R) ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry , “ Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   85 , 3966 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishna, S. A.

D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Rosenbluth, M.

D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 489 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “ Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction ,” Science   292 , 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

Schwartz, Z. D.

J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz , “ Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 02113 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 489 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “ Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction ,” Science   292 , 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “ Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction ,” Science   292 , 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 489 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. Aydin , K. Guven , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 124102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

K. Guven , K. Aydin , K. B. Alici , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 205125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin , K. Guven , M. Kafesaki , L. Zhang , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peak in metamaterials ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2623 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , E. Ozbay , S. Foteinopoulou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals ,” Nature   423 , 604 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , S. Foteinopolou , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   91 , 207401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sridhar, S.

P. Vodo , P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , and S. Sridhar , “ Focusing by plano-concave lens using negative refraction ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201108 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , P. Vodo , and S. Sridhar , “ Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction ,” Nature   426 , 404 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Lu and S. Sridhar , “ Flat lens without optical axis: Theory of Imaging ,” arXiv:cond-mat/0501715, ( 2005 ).

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

N. Fang , H. Lee , C. Sun , and X. Zhang , “ Sub-diffraction Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens ,” Science   308 , 534 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , K. Li , B. E. Koltenbah , and M. Tanielian , “ Experimental Verification and Simulation of Negative Index of Refraction Using Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 107401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanielian, M. H.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. A.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago , “ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.   10 , 504 ( 1968 ).
[Crossref]

Vetter, A. M.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Vier, D. C.

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vodo, P.

P. Vodo , P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , and S. Sridhar , “ Focusing by plano-concave lens using negative refraction ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201108 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , P. Vodo , and S. Sridhar , “ Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction ,” Nature   426 , 404 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. D.

J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz , “ Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 02113 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

N. Fang , H. Lee , C. Sun , and X. Zhang , “ Sub-diffraction Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens ,” Science   308 , 534 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang and X. Zhang , “ Imaging properties of a metamaterial superlens ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 161 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   78 , 489 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

K. Aydin , K. Guven , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 124102 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

N. Fang and X. Zhang , “ Imaging properties of a metamaterial superlens ” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 161 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith , D. Schurig , M. Rosenbluth , S. Schultz , S. A. Ramakrishna , and J. B. Pendry , “ Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1506 ( 2003 )
[Crossref]

J. D. Wilson and Z. D. Schwartz , “ Multifocal flat lens with left-handed metamaterial ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 02113 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , J. A. Nielsen , M. A. Thompson , K. Li , A. M. Vetter , D. C. Vier , and M. H. Tanielian , “ Performance of negative index of refraction lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 3232 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

P. Vodo , P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , and S. Sridhar , “ Focusing by plano-concave lens using negative refraction ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 201108 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 2075 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay , “ Negative refraction through impedance matched left-handed metamaterial slab ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B , (to be published).

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

J. B. Pendry , A. J. Holden , D. J. Robbins , and W. J. Stewart , “ Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures ,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter   10 , 4785 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

P. V. Parimi , W. T. Lu , P. Vodo , and S. Sridhar , “ Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction ,” Nature   426 , 404 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , E. Ozbay , S. Foteinopoulou , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals ,” Nature   423 , 604 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

M. Notomi , “ Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refraction like behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap ,” Phys. Rev. B   62 , 10696 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index ” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 201104 (R) ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

K. Guven , K. Aydin , K. B. Alici , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens ,” Phys. Rev. B   70 , 205125 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

C. Luo , S. G. Johnson , J. D. Joannopoulos , and J. B. Pendry , “ Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals ” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 045115 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

E. Cubukcu , K. Aydin , S. Foteinopolou , C. M. Soukoulis , and E. Ozbay , “ Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   91 , 207401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Lagarkov and V. N. Kissel , “ Near-Perfect Imaging in a Focusing System Based on a Left-Handed-Material Plate ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 077401 –1 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry , “ Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   85 , 3966 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Grbic and G. V. Eleftheriades , “ Overcoming the Diffraction Limit with a Planar Left-Handed Transmission-Line Lens ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 , 117403 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith , W. J. Padilla , D. C. Vier , S. C. Nemat-Nasser , and S. Schultz , “ Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   84 , 4184 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Parazzoli , R. B. Greegor , K. Li , B. E. Koltenbah , and M. Tanielian , “ Experimental Verification and Simulation of Negative Index of Refraction Using Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 107401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Houck , J. B. Brock , and I. L. Chuang , “ Experimental Observations of a Left-Handed Material That Obeys Snell’s Law ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   90 , 137401 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. A. Shelby , D. R. Smith , and S. Schultz , “ Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction ,” Science   292 , 77 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Fang , H. Lee , C. Sun , and X. Zhang , “ Sub-diffraction Limited Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens ,” Science   308 , 534 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago , “ The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.   10 , 504 ( 1968 ).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

W. T. Lu and S. Sridhar , “ Flat lens without optical axis: Theory of Imaging ,” arXiv:cond-mat/0501715, ( 2005 ).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawings of the top view of the experimental setup used for verifying (a) negative refraction, and (b) flat lens focusing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Spatial intensity distribution of an outgoing EM wave at 3.86 GHz along the x-z plane. (b) Intensity profile of an EM wave at the LHM-air interface (z = 0).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured transmission spectra along the x-z plane for a point source located at (a) ds = 39 mm, and (b) ds = 78 mm away from the LHM lens. The x direction is parallel to the LHM lens where x = 0 is the optical axis of the flat lens, whereas the z direction is perpendicular to the LHM lens where z = 0 is the LHM-air interface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity profiles of the focused EM waves taken at (a) x = 0 point along longitudinal direction, and (b) focal points of each source along the lateral direction. The graphs are for the point source located at λ/2 (black) and λ(red) away from the air-LHM interface.

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