Abstract

A polarization-independent phase-only liquid crystal (LC) phase modulator using a double-layered structure is demonstrated. Two orthogonal LC layers are separated by two ultra-thin anisotropic polymer films. The anisotropic polymeric films not only separate the LC layers but also provide good molecular alignment. As a result, a polarization-independent phase modulator with 2π phase shift is achieved at 9Vrms and 8.1π at 40Vrms using a 12-μm-thick E7 LC layers. This operating voltage is ~10X lower than that using a conventional 0.3-mm-thick glass separator.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4789 – 4791 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Prism grating using polymer stabilized nematic liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 3168 – 3170 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Efron , Spatial Light Modulators , ( Marcel Dekker, New York , 1994 ).
  5. V. Freedericksz and V. Zolina , “ Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid ,” Trans. Faraday Soc.   29 , 919 – 930 ( 1933 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1233 – 1235 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. L. West , G. Zhang , and A. Glushchenko , “ Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 031111 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Patel , “ Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   59 , 1314 – 1316 ( 1991 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Huang , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Simulations of liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot etalons by an improved 4x4 matrix method ,” J. Appl. Phys.   93 , 2490 – 2495 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. L. Sutherland , V. P. Tondiglia , L. V. Natarajan , T. J. Bunning , and W. W. Adams , “ Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1074 – 1076 ( 1994 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Ren , Y. H. Lin , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 141110 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.H. Lin , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture ,” J. Appl. Phys.   98 , 043112 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Bahadur , Liquid Crystals Applications and Uses , ( World Scientific, Singapore , 1992 ), Vol. 3 , Chap. 11.
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang , Reflective liquid crystal displays , ( New York: Wiley , 2001 ).
  16. T. Uchida , H. Seki , C. Shishido , and M. Wada , “ Bright dichroic guest-host LCDs without a polarizer ,” Proc. SID ,   22 , 41 – 46 ( 1981 ).
  17. M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Hasegawa , C. Hellermark , A. Nishikai , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , ” Reflective stacked crossed guest-host display with a planarized inner diffuser ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   31 , 128 – 131 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film ,” Proc. SPIE ,   5936 , 59360 O ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. L. West , G. Zhang , and A. Glushchenko , “ Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 031111 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Lin , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 141110 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.H. Lin , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture ,” J. Appl. Phys.   98 , 043112 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film ,” Proc. SPIE ,   5936 , 59360 O ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4789 – 4791 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1233 – 1235 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Prism grating using polymer stabilized nematic liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 3168 – 3170 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Simulations of liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot etalons by an improved 4x4 matrix method ,” J. Appl. Phys.   93 , 2490 – 2495 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Hasegawa , C. Hellermark , A. Nishikai , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , ” Reflective stacked crossed guest-host display with a planarized inner diffuser ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   31 , 128 – 131 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. L. Sutherland , V. P. Tondiglia , L. V. Natarajan , T. J. Bunning , and W. W. Adams , “ Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1074 – 1076 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. S. Patel , “ Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   59 , 1314 – 1316 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. Uchida , H. Seki , C. Shishido , and M. Wada , “ Bright dichroic guest-host LCDs without a polarizer ,” Proc. SID ,   22 , 41 – 46 ( 1981 ).

1933 (1)

V. Freedericksz and V. Zolina , “ Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid ,” Trans. Faraday Soc.   29 , 919 – 930 ( 1933 ).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland , V. P. Tondiglia , L. V. Natarajan , T. J. Bunning , and W. W. Adams , “ Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1074 – 1076 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Bahadur, B.

B. Bahadur , Liquid Crystals Applications and Uses , ( World Scientific, Singapore , 1992 ), Vol. 3 , Chap. 11.
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland , V. P. Tondiglia , L. V. Natarajan , T. J. Bunning , and W. W. Adams , “ Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1074 – 1076 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

U. Efron , Spatial Light Modulators , ( Marcel Dekker, New York , 1994 ).

Egelhaaf, J.

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

Y.H. Lin , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture ,” J. Appl. Phys.   98 , 043112 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Lin , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 141110 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1233 – 1235 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4789 – 4791 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Prism grating using polymer stabilized nematic liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 3168 – 3170 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Freedericksz, V.

V. Freedericksz and V. Zolina , “ Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid ,” Trans. Faraday Soc.   29 , 919 – 930 ( 1933 ).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film ,” Proc. SPIE ,   5936 , 59360 O ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4789 – 4791 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1233 – 1235 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A.

J. L. West , G. Zhang , and A. Glushchenko , “ Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 031111 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, M.

M. Hasegawa , C. Hellermark , A. Nishikai , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , ” Reflective stacked crossed guest-host display with a planarized inner diffuser ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   31 , 128 – 131 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Hellermark, C.

M. Hasegawa , C. Hellermark , A. Nishikai , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , ” Reflective stacked crossed guest-host display with a planarized inner diffuser ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   31 , 128 – 131 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Simulations of liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot etalons by an improved 4x4 matrix method ,” J. Appl. Phys.   93 , 2490 – 2495 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film ,” Proc. SPIE ,   5936 , 59360 O ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Lin , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 141110 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1233 – 1235 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.H.

Y.H. Lin , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture ,” J. Appl. Phys.   98 , 043112 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, A. C.

M. Hasegawa , C. Hellermark , A. Nishikai , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , ” Reflective stacked crossed guest-host display with a planarized inner diffuser ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   31 , 128 – 131 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

Lueder, E.

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland , V. P. Tondiglia , L. V. Natarajan , T. J. Bunning , and W. W. Adams , “ Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1074 – 1076 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Nishikai, A.

M. Hasegawa , C. Hellermark , A. Nishikai , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , ” Reflective stacked crossed guest-host display with a planarized inner diffuser ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   31 , 128 – 131 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel , “ Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   59 , 1314 – 1316 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film ,” Proc. SPIE ,   5936 , 59360 O ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Lin , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 141110 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y.H. Lin , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture ,” J. Appl. Phys.   98 , 043112 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1233 – 1235 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4789 – 4791 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Prism grating using polymer stabilized nematic liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 3168 – 3170 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, Y.

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Seed, A.

S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Seki, H.

T. Uchida , H. Seki , C. Shishido , and M. Wada , “ Bright dichroic guest-host LCDs without a polarizer ,” Proc. SID ,   22 , 41 – 46 ( 1981 ).

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Shishido, C.

T. Uchida , H. Seki , C. Shishido , and M. Wada , “ Bright dichroic guest-host LCDs without a polarizer ,” Proc. SID ,   22 , 41 – 46 ( 1981 ).

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland , V. P. Tondiglia , L. V. Natarajan , T. J. Bunning , and W. W. Adams , “ Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1074 – 1076 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Taira, Y.

M. Hasegawa , C. Hellermark , A. Nishikai , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , ” Reflective stacked crossed guest-host display with a planarized inner diffuser ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   31 , 128 – 131 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland , V. P. Tondiglia , L. V. Natarajan , T. J. Bunning , and W. W. Adams , “ Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1074 – 1076 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Uchida , H. Seki , C. Shishido , and M. Wada , “ Bright dichroic guest-host LCDs without a polarizer ,” Proc. SID ,   22 , 41 – 46 ( 1981 ).

Wada, M.

T. Uchida , H. Seki , C. Shishido , and M. Wada , “ Bright dichroic guest-host LCDs without a polarizer ,” Proc. SID ,   22 , 41 – 46 ( 1981 ).

Wang, H.

S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C. H.

S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

J. L. West , G. Zhang , and A. Glushchenko , “ Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 031111 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. R.

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Y.H. Lin , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture ,” J. Appl. Phys.   98 , 043112 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Lin , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 141110 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film ,” Proc. SPIE ,   5936 , 59360 O ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1233 – 1235 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4789 – 4791 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Prism grating using polymer stabilized nematic liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 3168 – 3170 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Simulations of liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot etalons by an improved 4x4 matrix method ,” J. Appl. Phys.   93 , 2490 – 2495 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang , Reflective liquid crystal displays , ( New York: Wiley , 2001 ).

Wu, T. X.

Y. Huang , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Simulations of liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot etalons by an improved 4x4 matrix method ,” J. Appl. Phys.   93 , 2490 – 2495 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

Y.H. Lin , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture ,” J. Appl. Phys.   98 , 043112 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film ,” Proc. SPIE ,   5936 , 59360 O ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang , Reflective liquid crystal displays , ( New York: Wiley , 2001 ).

Zhang, G.

J. L. West , G. Zhang , and A. Glushchenko , “ Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 031111 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Zolina, V.

V. Freedericksz and V. Zolina , “ Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid ,” Trans. Faraday Soc.   29 , 919 – 930 ( 1933 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4789 – 4791 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Prism grating using polymer stabilized nematic liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 3168 – 3170 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , and S. T. Wu , “ Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 1233 – 1235 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J. L. West , G. Zhang , and A. Glushchenko , “ Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 031111 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Patel , “ Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   59 , 1314 – 1316 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland , V. P. Tondiglia , L. V. Natarajan , T. J. Bunning , and W. W. Adams , “ Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1074 – 1076 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren , Y. H. Lin , Y. H. Fan , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 141110 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y.H. Lin , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture ,” J. Appl. Phys.   98 , 043112 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang , T. X. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Simulations of liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot etalons by an improved 4x4 matrix method ,” J. Appl. Phys.   93 , 2490 – 2495 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Gauza , H. Wang , C. H. Wen , S. T. Wu , A. Seed , and R. Dabrowski , “ High birefringence isothiocyanato tolane liquid crystals ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   42 , 3463 – 3466 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Y. H. Wu , Y. H. Lin , Y. Q. Lu , H. Ren , Y. H. Fan , J. R. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Submillisecond response variable optical attenuator based on sheared polymer network liquid crystal ,” Opt. Express   12 , 6377 – 6348 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6382
[CrossRef]

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P. F. McManamon , T. A. Dorschner , D. L. Corkum , L. J. Friedman , D. S. Hobbs , M. Holz , S. Liberman , H. Q. Nguyen , D. P. Resler , R. C. Sharp , and E. A. Watson , “ Optical phased arrays technology ,” Proc. IEEE   84 , 268 – 298 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

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T. Uchida , H. Seki , C. Shishido , and M. Wada , “ Bright dichroic guest-host LCDs without a polarizer ,” Proc. SID ,   22 , 41 – 46 ( 1981 ).

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. H. Lin , H. Ren , S. Gauza , Y. H. Wu , and S. T. Wu , “ Single-substrate IPS-LCD using an anisotropic polymer film ,” Proc. SPIE ,   5936 , 59360 O ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

SID Symposium Digest (2)

M. Hasegawa , K. Takeda , Y. Sakaguchi , J. Egelhaaf , E. Lueder , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , “ 320-dpi 4-inch reflective stacked crossed guest-host display ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   30 , 962 – 965 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Hasegawa , C. Hellermark , A. Nishikai , Y. Taira , and A. C. Lowe , ” Reflective stacked crossed guest-host display with a planarized inner diffuser ,” SID Symposium Digest ,   31 , 128 – 131 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

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V. Freedericksz and V. Zolina , “ Forces causing the orientation of an anisotropic liquid ,” Trans. Faraday Soc.   29 , 919 – 930 ( 1933 ).
[CrossRef]

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U. Efron , Spatial Light Modulators , ( Marcel Dekker, New York , 1994 ).

B. Bahadur , Liquid Crystals Applications and Uses , ( World Scientific, Singapore , 1992 ), Vol. 3 , Chap. 11.
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang , Reflective liquid crystal displays , ( New York: Wiley , 2001 ).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (702 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The structure of a polarization-independent phase modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM images of the anisotropic polymer film surface. LC directors are aligned along the arrow. The color bars indicate the height.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mach-Zehnder interferometer for measuring the phase shift. M: dielectric mirror, and BS: beam splitter.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Interference patterns at various voltages (703 KB) and (b) intensity profiles at 0 (blue), 7 (green) and 9 Vrms (red). The two orthogonal LC cells are 12-μm E7 layers. λ=633 nm from an unpolarized He-Ne laser.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Voltage-dependent phase shift of the polarization-independent LC phase modulator at λ=633 nm. Filled circles represent the measured data using our anisotropic polymeric films while open circles are the simulated results of the double-layered structure using a 0.3-mm-thick glass separator.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E i = A x · x ̂ + A y · y ̂ ,
E o = A x · e i·κ· ( n e + n o ) ·d · x ̂ + A y · e i·κ· ( n e + n o ) ·d · y ̂
E o = e i·κ· ( n eff θ ψ + n eff θ π 2 + ψ ) ·d · ( A x · x ̂ + A y · y ̂ )
ϕ ( V ) = κ· ( n eff θ ψ + n eff θ π 2 + ψ 2 ) · d + δ ,
ψ ( 0 ) = κ· ( n e + n o 2 ) · d + δ ,
n eff θ ψ = n eff ( θ , π 2 + ψ ) = n o ,
ϕ ( V > > 0 ) = κ· ( 2 n o 2 ) · d + δ
Δ ϕ = ϕ ( 0 ) ϕ ( V > > 0 ) = ( 2 π λ ) ·d· ( n e n o ) ,

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