Abstract

Focused ion beam milling is a processing technology which allows flexible direct writing of nanometer scale features efficiently substituting electron beam lithography. No mask need results in ability for patterns writing even on fragile micromechanical devices. In this work we studied the abilities of the tool for fabrication of diffraction grating couplers in silicon nitride waveguides. The gratings were fabricated on a chip with extra fragile cantilevers of sub micron thickness. Optical characterization of the couplers was done using excitation of the waveguides in visible range by focused Gaussian beams of different waist sizes. Influence of Ga+ implantation on the device performance was studied.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (3)

2004 (4)

Yongqi Fu , Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan , and Wei Zhou , “ Self-organized formation of Blazed-grating-like structure on Si(100) induced by focused ion beam scanning ,” Opt. Express   12 , 227 – 233 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-227
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yongqi Fu , Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan , and Wei Zhou , “ Quasi-direct writing of diffractive structures with a focused ion beam ,” Opt. Express   12 , 1803 – 1809 ( 2004 ). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1803
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Ampere A Tseng , “ Recent developments in micromilling using focused ion beam technology ,” J. Micromech. Microeng.   14 , R15 – R34 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. Wiesmann , C. David , R. Germann , D. Erni , and G. L. Bona , “ Apodized Surface-Corrugated Gratings With Varying Duty Cycles ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 639 – 642 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

N. Eriksson , M. Hagberg , and A. Larson , “ Highly Directional Grating OutCouplers with Tailorable Radiation Characteristics ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 1038 – 1047 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

1976 (1)

W. Streifer , R.D. Burnham , and D.R. Scifres , “ Analysis of grating coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   QE-12 , 422 – 428 ( 1976 )
[Crossref]

Ahmed, M. Abdou

Bona, G. L.

D. Wiesmann , C. David , R. Germann , D. Erni , and G. L. Bona , “ Apodized Surface-Corrugated Gratings With Varying Duty Cycles ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 639 – 642 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Brayan, N.K.A.

Yongqi Fu and N.K.A. Brayan , “ Investigation of physical properties of quartz after focused ion beam bombardment ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 581 – 585 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Brazas, John C.

Bryan, Ngoi Kok Ann

Burnham, R.D.

W. Streifer , R.D. Burnham , and D.R. Scifres , “ Analysis of grating coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   QE-12 , 422 – 428 ( 1976 )
[Crossref]

David, C.

D. Wiesmann , C. David , R. Germann , D. Erni , and G. L. Bona , “ Apodized Surface-Corrugated Gratings With Varying Duty Cycles ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 639 – 642 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Destouches, N.

Eggleton, B. J.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Eriksson, N.

N. Eriksson , M. Hagberg , and A. Larson , “ Highly Directional Grating OutCouplers with Tailorable Radiation Characteristics ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 1038 – 1047 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Erni, D.

D. Wiesmann , C. David , R. Germann , D. Erni , and G. L. Bona , “ Apodized Surface-Corrugated Gratings With Varying Duty Cycles ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 639 – 642 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Freeman, D.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Freeman, Darren

Fu, Yongqi

Germann, R.

D. Wiesmann , C. David , R. Germann , D. Erni , and G. L. Bona , “ Apodized Surface-Corrugated Gratings With Varying Duty Cycles ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 639 – 642 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Gupta, Mool C.

Hagberg, M.

N. Eriksson , M. Hagberg , and A. Larson , “ Highly Directional Grating OutCouplers with Tailorable Radiation Characteristics ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 1038 – 1047 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Larson, A.

N. Eriksson , M. Hagberg , and A. Larson , “ Highly Directional Grating OutCouplers with Tailorable Radiation Characteristics ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 1038 – 1047 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

Lawandy, Nabil M.

Li, Lifeng

Luther-Davies, B.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Luther-Davis, Barry

Madden, S.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

Petit, R.

R. Petit , “ Electromagnetic Theory of gratings ,” ( Springer Berlag, Berlin 1980 ).

Pommier, J. C.

Reynaud, S.

Samoc, M.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Scifres, D.R.

W. Streifer , R.D. Burnham , and D.R. Scifres , “ Analysis of grating coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   QE-12 , 422 – 428 ( 1976 )
[Crossref]

Smuk, Andrei Y.

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer , R.D. Burnham , and D.R. Scifres , “ Analysis of grating coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   QE-12 , 422 – 428 ( 1976 )
[Crossref]

Ta’eed, V. G.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Tishchenko, A. V.

Tonchev, S.

Tseng, Ampere A

Ampere A Tseng , “ Recent developments in micromilling using focused ion beam technology ,” J. Micromech. Microeng.   14 , R15 – R34 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Wiesmann, D.

D. Wiesmann , C. David , R. Germann , D. Erni , and G. L. Bona , “ Apodized Surface-Corrugated Gratings With Varying Duty Cycles ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 639 – 642 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

Zhou, Wei

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Yongqi Fu and N.K.A. Brayan , “ Investigation of physical properties of quartz after focused ion beam bombardment ,” Appl. Phys. B   80 , 581 – 585 , ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. G. Ta’eed , D. J. Moss , B. J. Eggleton , D. Freeman , S. Madden , M. Samoc , B. Luther-Davies , S. Janz , and D.-X. Xu , “ Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator waveguides by focused ion beam milling ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4860 – 4862 ( 2004 )
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. Streifer , R.D. Burnham , and D.R. Scifres , “ Analysis of grating coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   QE-12 , 422 – 428 ( 1976 )
[Crossref]

N. Eriksson , M. Hagberg , and A. Larson , “ Highly Directional Grating OutCouplers with Tailorable Radiation Characteristics ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.   32 , 1038 – 1047 ( 1996 )
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Wiesmann , C. David , R. Germann , D. Erni , and G. L. Bona , “ Apodized Surface-Corrugated Gratings With Varying Duty Cycles ,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. ,   12 , 639 – 642 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

Ampere A Tseng , “ Recent developments in micromilling using focused ion beam technology ,” J. Micromech. Microeng.   14 , R15 – R34 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

R. Petit , “ Electromagnetic Theory of gratings ,” ( Springer Berlag, Berlin 1980 ).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Excitation of the waveguide by out of plane incident beam with diameter w

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) A photograph of a chip with waveguides and cantilevers (the waveguides in the cavities are the cantilevers of sub-micron thickness). (b) A magnified photo of the chip area with gratings (marked by the frame in fig. 2(a)). The gratings are 40×40 μm2 in size

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The profile of the grating 1 obtained with AFM. (b) The spatial spectrum obtained by Fourier transform of the profile.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic view of the experiment. (b) Measured coupling efficiencies of the DGCs versus incident beam spot size.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optimised coupling length versus corrugation depth for the grating couplers.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalised depth profile of Ga inside the coupler.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters of the diffraction grating couplers

Equations (1)

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dP ( x ) dx = A ( x ) η P ( x ) α rad P ( x ) α abs

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