Abstract

Several planar photonic crystal components topology-optimized for TE-polarized light, including 60° bends, Y-splitters, and 90° bends, have been characterized for the TM polarization. The experimental results are confirmed by finite-difference time-domain calculations. The surprising efficiency for TM-polarized light is found and paves the way for photonic crystal components suitable for both polarizations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett 58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen , “ Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light ,” Opt. Express 11 , 1757 – 1762 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization of photonic crystal structures: A hight bandwidth low loss T-junction waveguide ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22 , 1191 – 1198 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen , “ Topology design and fabrication of an efficient double 90° photonic crystal waveguide bend ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17 , 1202 – 1204 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization ,” Opt. Express 12 , 5916 – 5921 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter ,” Electron. Lett. 41 , 69 – 71 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab , “ Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1622 – 1631 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1622 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, P. I.

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen , “ Topology design and fabrication of an efficient double 90° photonic crystal waveguide bend ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17 , 1202 – 1204 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter ,” Electron. Lett. 41 , 69 – 71 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization ,” Opt. Express 12 , 5916 – 5921 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen , “ Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light ,” Opt. Express 11 , 1757 – 1762 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frandsen, L. H.

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen , “ Topology design and fabrication of an efficient double 90° photonic crystal waveguide bend ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17 , 1202 – 1204 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter ,” Electron. Lett. 41 , 69 – 71 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization ,” Opt. Express 12 , 5916 – 5921 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen , “ Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light ,” Opt. Express 11 , 1757 – 1762 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

HarpØth, A.

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen , “ Topology design and fabrication of an efficient double 90° photonic crystal waveguide bend ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17 , 1202 – 1204 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter ,” Electron. Lett. 41 , 69 – 71 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization ,” Opt. Express 12 , 5916 – 5921 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen , “ Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light ,” Opt. Express 11 , 1757 – 1762 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. S.

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization of photonic crystal structures: A hight bandwidth low loss T-junction waveguide ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22 , 1191 – 1198 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen , “ Topology design and fabrication of an efficient double 90° photonic crystal waveguide bend ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17 , 1202 – 1204 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter ,” Electron. Lett. 41 , 69 – 71 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization ,” Opt. Express 12 , 5916 – 5921 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett 58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter ,” Electron. Lett. 41 , 69 – 71 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen , “ Topology design and fabrication of an efficient double 90° photonic crystal waveguide bend ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17 , 1202 – 1204 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization ,” Opt. Express 12 , 5916 – 5921 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen , “ Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light ,” Opt. Express 11 , 1757 – 1762 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavrinenko, A.

A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab , “ Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1622 – 1631 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1622 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niemi, T.

A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, P.

P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigmund, O.

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen , “ Topology design and fabrication of an efficient double 90° photonic crystal waveguide bend ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17 , 1202 – 1204 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization of photonic crystal structures: A hight bandwidth low loss T-junction waveguide ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22 , 1191 – 1198 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter ,” Electron. Lett. 41 , 69 – 71 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization ,” Opt. Express 12 , 5916 – 5921 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorhauge, M

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen , “ Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light ,” Opt. Express 11 , 1757 – 1762 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorhauge, M.

A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab , “ Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1622 – 1631 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1622 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, Y. X.

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen , “ Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light ,” Opt. Express 11 , 1757 – 1762 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimised broadband photonic crystal Y-splitter ,” Electron. Lett. 41 , 69 – 71 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen , “ Topology design and fabrication of an efficient double 90° photonic crystal waveguide bend ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17 , 1202 – 1204 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization of photonic crystal structures: A hight bandwidth low loss T-junction waveguide ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22 , 1191 – 1198 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harp∅th, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization ,” Opt. Express 12 , 5916 – 5921 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lavrinenko, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, M. Kristensen, T. Niemi , “ Comprehensive FDTD modelling of photonic crystal waveguide components ,” Opt. Express 12 , 234 – 248 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-2-234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab , “ Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1622 – 1631 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1622 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, A. Harp∅th, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund , “ Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures ,” Opt. Express 12 , 1996 – 2001 ( 2004 ), .http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1996 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M Thorhauge, A. Harp∅th, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen , “ Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light ,” Opt. Express 11 , 1757 – 1762 ( 2003 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett

S. John , “ Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices ,” Phys. Rev. Lett 58 , 2486 – 2489 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Yablonovitch , “ Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics ,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 , 2059 – 2062 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron micrograph of topology-optimized components: a) 60° bend, b) 90° bend, c) Y-splitter, and d) Z bend.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental characterization setup for PhCW components.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Loss per bend (dB) for an optimized and un-optimized 60° bend for TM-polarized light (plain curves: experiments, dashed curves: 3D FDTD simulations).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Loss per bend (dB) for an optimized (plain curve) and un-optimized (dashed curve) 90° bend for TM-polarized light.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized transmission (dB) for the two outports of a topology-optimized Y-splitter for TM-polarized light (black curves: experiments, red curves: 3D FDTD simulations)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Loss per bend (dB) for an optimized (plain curve) and un-optimized (dashed curve) Z-bend for TM-polarized light.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Loss comparison between TE and TM polarization for different topology-optimized PhC components

Metrics