Abstract

We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase-matching wavelength and bandwidth, and a normalised conversion efficiency of 1.4 × 10-3 %/W/cm2 which, to our knowledge, is the highest obtained so far with periodic glass poling.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Myers , N. Mukherjee , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica ,” Opt. Lett.   16 , 1732 – 4 ( 1991 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Kudlinski , G. Martinelli , and Y. Quiquempois , “ Time evolution of second-order nonlinear profiles induced within thermally poled silica samples ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1039 – 1041 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Faccio , V. Pruneri , and P. Kazansky , “ Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 2687 – 9 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Ozcan , M. Digonnet , G. Kino , F. Ay , and A. Aydinli , “ Characterization of thermally poled germanosilicate thin films ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4698 – 4708 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4698 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Fage-Pedersen , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling ,” in Bragg Gratings, Poling, and Photosensitivity (BGPP), Sydney, Australia, July 2005, paper no. 69 .
  6. V. Pruneri , G. Bonfrate , P. Kazansky , D. Richardson , N. Broderick , J. De Sandro , C. Simonneau , P. Vidakovic , and J. Levenson , “ Greater than 20%-efficient frequency doubling of 1532-nm nanosecond pulses in quasi-phase-matched germanosilicate optical fibers ,” Opt. Lett.   24 , 208 – 10 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).
  8. R. Kashyap , G. J. Veldhuis , D. C. Rogers , and P. F. Mckee , “ Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1332 – 1334 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. H.-Y. Chen , J.-S. Sue , Y.-H. Lin , and S. Chao , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in ultraviolet-assisted periodically poled planar fused silica ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 917 – 919 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Ren , C. Marckmann , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Poling effect of a charge-trapping layer in glass waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 371 – 375 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. U. Krieger and W. Lanford , “ Field assisted transport of Na + ions, Ca 2+ ions and electrons in commercial soda-lime glass I: Experimental ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   102 , 50 – 61 ( 1988 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. G. Alley and R. A. Myers , “ Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   242 , 165 – 176 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Severi and M. Impronta , “ Charge trapping in thin nitrided SiO 2 films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 1702 – 4 ( 1987 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Luo , A. Biswas , A. Frauenglass , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-harmonic signal in thermally poled lead glass-silica waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4935 – 4937 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Arentoft , M. Kristensen , K. Pedersen , S. Bozhevolnyi , and P. Shi , “ Poling of silica with silver-containing electrodes ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1635 – 1636 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Fage-Pedersen , M. Kristensen , and J. Beerman , “ Poling of glass waveguides by a metal-induced χ (3) enhancement ,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe), Munich, Germany, June 2003 , p. 213 (IEEE, 2003 ).

2005 (2)

A. Kudlinski , G. Martinelli , and Y. Quiquempois , “ Time evolution of second-order nonlinear profiles induced within thermally poled silica samples ,” Opt. Lett.   30 , 1039 – 1041 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).

2004 (3)

A. Ozcan , M. Digonnet , G. Kino , F. Ay , and A. Aydinli , “ Characterization of thermally poled germanosilicate thin films ,” Opt. Express   12 , 4698 – 4708 ( 2004 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4698 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren , C. Marckmann , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Poling effect of a charge-trapping layer in glass waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 371 – 375 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo , A. Biswas , A. Frauenglass , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-harmonic signal in thermally poled lead glass-silica waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4935 – 4937 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. Fage-Pedersen , M. Kristensen , and J. Beerman , “ Poling of glass waveguides by a metal-induced χ (3) enhancement ,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe), Munich, Germany, June 2003 , p. 213 (IEEE, 2003 ).

H.-Y. Chen , J.-S. Sue , Y.-H. Lin , and S. Chao , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in ultraviolet-assisted periodically poled planar fused silica ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 917 – 919 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. Faccio , V. Pruneri , and P. Kazansky , “ Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 2687 – 9 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Arentoft , M. Kristensen , K. Pedersen , S. Bozhevolnyi , and P. Shi , “ Poling of silica with silver-containing electrodes ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1635 – 1636 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

T. G. Alley and R. A. Myers , “ Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   242 , 165 – 176 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Kashyap , G. J. Veldhuis , D. C. Rogers , and P. F. Mckee , “ Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1332 – 1334 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

U. Krieger and W. Lanford , “ Field assisted transport of Na + ions, Ca 2+ ions and electrons in commercial soda-lime glass I: Experimental ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   102 , 50 – 61 ( 1988 ).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. Severi and M. Impronta , “ Charge trapping in thin nitrided SiO 2 films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 1702 – 4 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Alley, T. G.

T. G. Alley and R. A. Myers , “ Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   242 , 165 – 176 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Arentoft, J.

J. Arentoft , M. Kristensen , K. Pedersen , S. Bozhevolnyi , and P. Shi , “ Poling of silica with silver-containing electrodes ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1635 – 1636 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Ay, F.

Aydinli, A.

Beerman, J.

J. Fage-Pedersen , M. Kristensen , and J. Beerman , “ Poling of glass waveguides by a metal-induced χ (3) enhancement ,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe), Munich, Germany, June 2003 , p. 213 (IEEE, 2003 ).

Biswas, A.

Y. Luo , A. Biswas , A. Frauenglass , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-harmonic signal in thermally poled lead glass-silica waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4935 – 4937 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Bonfrate, G.

Bozhevolnyi, S.

J. Arentoft , M. Kristensen , K. Pedersen , S. Bozhevolnyi , and P. Shi , “ Poling of silica with silver-containing electrodes ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1635 – 1636 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N.

Brueck, S.

Y. Luo , A. Biswas , A. Frauenglass , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-harmonic signal in thermally poled lead glass-silica waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4935 – 4937 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

R. Myers , N. Mukherjee , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica ,” Opt. Lett.   16 , 1732 – 4 ( 1991 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, S.

H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).

H.-Y. Chen , J.-S. Sue , Y.-H. Lin , and S. Chao , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in ultraviolet-assisted periodically poled planar fused silica ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 917 – 919 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).

H.-Y. Chen , J.-S. Sue , Y.-H. Lin , and S. Chao , “ Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in ultraviolet-assisted periodically poled planar fused silica ,” Opt. Lett.   28 , 917 – 919 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Sandro, J.

Digonnet, M.

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio , V. Pruneri , and P. Kazansky , “ Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 2687 – 9 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

J. Fage-Pedersen , M. Kristensen , and J. Beerman , “ Poling of glass waveguides by a metal-induced χ (3) enhancement ,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe), Munich, Germany, June 2003 , p. 213 (IEEE, 2003 ).

J. Fage-Pedersen , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling ,” in Bragg Gratings, Poling, and Photosensitivity (BGPP), Sydney, Australia, July 2005, paper no. 69 .

Frauenglass, A.

Y. Luo , A. Biswas , A. Frauenglass , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-harmonic signal in thermally poled lead glass-silica waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4935 – 4937 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Impronta, M.

M. Severi and M. Impronta , “ Charge trapping in thin nitrided SiO 2 films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 1702 – 4 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, R.

Y. Ren , C. Marckmann , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Poling effect of a charge-trapping layer in glass waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 371 – 375 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

J. Fage-Pedersen , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling ,” in Bragg Gratings, Poling, and Photosensitivity (BGPP), Sydney, Australia, July 2005, paper no. 69 .

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap , G. J. Veldhuis , D. C. Rogers , and P. F. Mckee , “ Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1332 – 1334 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P.

Kino, G.

Krieger, U.

U. Krieger and W. Lanford , “ Field assisted transport of Na + ions, Ca 2+ ions and electrons in commercial soda-lime glass I: Experimental ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   102 , 50 – 61 ( 1988 ).
[Crossref]

Kristensen, M.

Y. Ren , C. Marckmann , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Poling effect of a charge-trapping layer in glass waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 371 – 375 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

J. Fage-Pedersen , M. Kristensen , and J. Beerman , “ Poling of glass waveguides by a metal-induced χ (3) enhancement ,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe), Munich, Germany, June 2003 , p. 213 (IEEE, 2003 ).

J. Arentoft , M. Kristensen , K. Pedersen , S. Bozhevolnyi , and P. Shi , “ Poling of silica with silver-containing electrodes ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1635 – 1636 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. Fage-Pedersen , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling ,” in Bragg Gratings, Poling, and Photosensitivity (BGPP), Sydney, Australia, July 2005, paper no. 69 .

Kudlinski, A.

Lanford, W.

U. Krieger and W. Lanford , “ Field assisted transport of Na + ions, Ca 2+ ions and electrons in commercial soda-lime glass I: Experimental ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   102 , 50 – 61 ( 1988 ).
[Crossref]

Levenson, J.

Lin, C.-L.

H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).

Lin, Y.-H.

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo , A. Biswas , A. Frauenglass , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-harmonic signal in thermally poled lead glass-silica waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4935 – 4937 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Marckmann, C.

Y. Ren , C. Marckmann , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Poling effect of a charge-trapping layer in glass waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 371 – 375 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, G.

Mckee, P. F.

R. Kashyap , G. J. Veldhuis , D. C. Rogers , and P. F. Mckee , “ Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1332 – 1334 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R.

Myers, R. A.

T. G. Alley and R. A. Myers , “ Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   242 , 165 – 176 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Niu, H.

H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).

Ozcan, A.

Pedersen, K.

J. Arentoft , M. Kristensen , K. Pedersen , S. Bozhevolnyi , and P. Shi , “ Poling of silica with silver-containing electrodes ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1635 – 1636 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Pruneri, V.

Quiquempois, Y.

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren , C. Marckmann , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Poling effect of a charge-trapping layer in glass waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 371 – 375 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D.

Rogers, D. C.

R. Kashyap , G. J. Veldhuis , D. C. Rogers , and P. F. Mckee , “ Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1332 – 1334 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Severi, M.

M. Severi and M. Impronta , “ Charge trapping in thin nitrided SiO 2 films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 1702 – 4 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Shi, P.

J. Arentoft , M. Kristensen , K. Pedersen , S. Bozhevolnyi , and P. Shi , “ Poling of silica with silver-containing electrodes ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1635 – 1636 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Shih, C. T.

H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).

Simonneau, C.

Sue, J.-S.

Veldhuis, G. J.

R. Kashyap , G. J. Veldhuis , D. C. Rogers , and P. F. Mckee , “ Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1332 – 1334 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Vidakovic, P.

Yang, Y.-H.

H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Ren , C. Marckmann , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Poling effect of a charge-trapping layer in glass waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. B   78 , 371 – 375 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H.-Y. Chen , C.-L. Lin , Y.-H. Yang , S. Chao , H. Niu , and C. T. Shih , “ Creation of second-order nonlinearity and quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in Ge-implanted fused silica planar waveguide ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   86 , 81,107 ( 2005 ).

R. Kashyap , G. J. Veldhuis , D. C. Rogers , and P. F. Mckee , “ Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 1332 – 1334 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

D. Faccio , V. Pruneri , and P. Kazansky , “ Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   79 , 2687 – 9 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

M. Severi and M. Impronta , “ Charge trapping in thin nitrided SiO 2 films ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   51 , 1702 – 4 ( 1987 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo , A. Biswas , A. Frauenglass , and S. Brueck , “ Large second-harmonic signal in thermally poled lead glass-silica waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   84 , 4935 – 4937 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Arentoft , M. Kristensen , K. Pedersen , S. Bozhevolnyi , and P. Shi , “ Poling of silica with silver-containing electrodes ,” Electron. Lett.   36 , 1635 – 1636 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (2)

U. Krieger and W. Lanford , “ Field assisted transport of Na + ions, Ca 2+ ions and electrons in commercial soda-lime glass I: Experimental ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   102 , 50 – 61 ( 1988 ).
[Crossref]

T. G. Alley and R. A. Myers , “ Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica ,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol.   242 , 165 – 176 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

J. Fage-Pedersen , M. Kristensen , and J. Beerman , “ Poling of glass waveguides by a metal-induced χ (3) enhancement ,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO/Europe), Munich, Germany, June 2003 , p. 213 (IEEE, 2003 ).

J. Fage-Pedersen , R. Jacobsen , and M. Kristensen , “ Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling ,” in Bragg Gratings, Poling, and Photosensitivity (BGPP), Sydney, Australia, July 2005, paper no. 69 .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a chip with QPM devices. In this example, the chip contains three waveguides with different QPM periods.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SH intensity as a function of pump wavelength for a 3-mm long device.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Centre wavelength vs. electrode period for different devices on the same chip.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalised conversion efficiency ηN as a function of poling temperature for different poling voltages. The poling duration was 15 minutes. The devices in the ’#504’ series have slightly optimised design relative to those in the ’#404’ series (thinner top cladding and core layer, and thicker buffer layer). The dashed line is a guide to the eye.

Equations (1)

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P 2 ω = 2 π 2 c ε 0 1 λ 2 n ω 2 n 2 ω ( χ expl ( 2 ) ) 2 P ω 2 L 2 A ovl ( sin [ 1 2 Δ k ' L ] 1 2 Δ k ' L ) 2

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