Abstract

A wide-viewing-angle 3D/2D convertible display system with a thin structure is proposed that is able to display three-dimensional and two-dimensional images. With the use of a transparent display device in front of a conventional integral imaging system, it is possible to display planar images using the conventional system as a backlight source. By experiments, the proposed method is proven and compared with the conventional one.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Lippmann , “ Épreuves réversibles. Photographies intégrales ,” Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences   146 , 446 – 451 ( 1908 ).
  2. F. Okano , H. Hoshino , J. Arai , and I. Yuyama , “ Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography ,” Appl. Opt.   36 , 1598 – 1603 ( 1997 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Okoshi , “ Optimum design and depth resolution of lens-sheet and projection-type three-dimensional displays ,” Appl. Opt.   10 , 2284 – 2291 ( 1971 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S.-W. Min , S. Jung , J.-H. Park , and B. Lee , “ Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography ,” The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE   4297 , 187 – 195 , San Jose, USA, Jan. ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. J.-H. Park , H.-R. Kim , Y. Kim , J. Kim , J. Hong , S.-D. Lee , and B. Lee , “ Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2734 – 2736 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Kim , J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array ,” Appl. Opt.   44 , pp. 546 – 552 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S.-H. Shin and B. Javidi , “ Speckle reduced three-dimensional volume holographic display using integral imaging ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 2644 – 2649 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Frauel and B. Javidi , “ Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 5488 – 5496 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. Manolache , A. Aggoun , M. McCormick , N. Davies , and S. Y. Kung , “ Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   18 , 1814 – 1821 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Naemura , T. Yoshida , and H. Harashima , “ 3-D computer graphics based on integral photography ,” Opt. Express   8 , 255 – 262 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-4-255.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Martínez-Corral , B. Javidi , R. Martínez-Cuenca , and G. Saavedra , “ Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude-modulated microlens arrays ,” Appl. Opt.   43 , 5806 – 5813 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Arai , F. Okano , H. Hoshino , and I. Yuyama , “ Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images ,” Appl. Opt.   37 , 2034 – 2045 ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. J.-H. Park , J. Kim , Y. Kim , and B. Lee , “ Resolution-enhanced three-dimension/two-dimension convertible display based on integral imaging ,” Opt. Express   13 , 1875 – 1884 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-6-1875.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. B. Lee , S. Jung , S.-W. Min , and J.-H. Park , “ Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1481 – 1482 , ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , and B. Lee , “ Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 5217 – 5232 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. Lee , S. Jung , and J.-H. Park , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 818 – 820 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Jung , J.-H. Park , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 2513 – 2520 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J.-H. Park , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 6875 – 6883 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Igarishi , H. Murata , and M. Ueda , “ 3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph ,” Japanese J. Appl. Phys.   17 , 1683 – 1684 ( 1978 ).
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

2001 (5)

S. Manolache , A. Aggoun , M. McCormick , N. Davies , and S. Y. Kung , “ Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   18 , 1814 – 1821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

T. Naemura , T. Yoshida , and H. Harashima , “ 3-D computer graphics based on integral photography ,” Opt. Express   8 , 255 – 262 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-4-255.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min , S. Jung , J.-H. Park , and B. Lee , “ Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography ,” The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE   4297 , 187 – 195 , San Jose, USA, Jan. ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

B. Lee , S. Jung , S.-W. Min , and J.-H. Park , “ Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1481 – 1482 , ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , and B. Lee , “ Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 5217 – 5232 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1978 (1)

Y. Igarishi , H. Murata , and M. Ueda , “ 3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph ,” Japanese J. Appl. Phys.   17 , 1683 – 1684 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann , “ Épreuves réversibles. Photographies intégrales ,” Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences   146 , 446 – 451 ( 1908 ).

Aggoun, A.

S. Manolache , A. Aggoun , M. McCormick , N. Davies , and S. Y. Kung , “ Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   18 , 1814 – 1821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Arai, J.

Choi, H.

Davies, N.

S. Manolache , A. Aggoun , M. McCormick , N. Davies , and S. Y. Kung , “ Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   18 , 1814 – 1821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Frauel, Y.

Harashima, H.

Hong, J.

Hoshino, H.

Igarishi, Y.

Y. Igarishi , H. Murata , and M. Ueda , “ 3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph ,” Japanese J. Appl. Phys.   17 , 1683 – 1684 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

Jung, S.

Y. Kim , J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array ,” Appl. Opt.   44 , pp. 546 – 552 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jung , J.-H. Park , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 2513 – 2520 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lee , S. Jung , and J.-H. Park , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 818 – 820 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Park , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 6875 – 6883 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , and B. Lee , “ Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 5217 – 5232 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

B. Lee , S. Jung , S.-W. Min , and J.-H. Park , “ Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1481 – 1482 , ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Min , S. Jung , J.-H. Park , and B. Lee , “ Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography ,” The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE   4297 , 187 – 195 , San Jose, USA, Jan. ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-R.

Kim, J.

Kim, Y.

Kung, S. Y.

S. Manolache , A. Aggoun , M. McCormick , N. Davies , and S. Y. Kung , “ Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   18 , 1814 – 1821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Y. Kim , J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array ,” Appl. Opt.   44 , pp. 546 – 552 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park , J. Kim , Y. Kim , and B. Lee , “ Resolution-enhanced three-dimension/two-dimension convertible display based on integral imaging ,” Opt. Express   13 , 1875 – 1884 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-6-1875.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park , H.-R. Kim , Y. Kim , J. Kim , J. Hong , S.-D. Lee , and B. Lee , “ Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2734 – 2736 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jung , J.-H. Park , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 2513 – 2520 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lee , S. Jung , and J.-H. Park , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 818 – 820 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Park , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 6875 – 6883 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , and B. Lee , “ Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 5217 – 5232 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

B. Lee , S. Jung , S.-W. Min , and J.-H. Park , “ Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1481 – 1482 , ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Min , S. Jung , J.-H. Park , and B. Lee , “ Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography ,” The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE   4297 , 187 – 195 , San Jose, USA, Jan. ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-D.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann , “ Épreuves réversibles. Photographies intégrales ,” Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences   146 , 446 – 451 ( 1908 ).

Manolache, S.

S. Manolache , A. Aggoun , M. McCormick , N. Davies , and S. Y. Kung , “ Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   18 , 1814 – 1821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Corral, M.

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

McCormick, M.

S. Manolache , A. Aggoun , M. McCormick , N. Davies , and S. Y. Kung , “ Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   18 , 1814 – 1821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Min, S.-W.

Murata, H.

Y. Igarishi , H. Murata , and M. Ueda , “ 3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph ,” Japanese J. Appl. Phys.   17 , 1683 – 1684 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Naemura, T.

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

Park, J.-H.

Y. Kim , J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array ,” Appl. Opt.   44 , pp. 546 – 552 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park , J. Kim , Y. Kim , and B. Lee , “ Resolution-enhanced three-dimension/two-dimension convertible display based on integral imaging ,” Opt. Express   13 , 1875 – 1884 ( 2005 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-6-1875.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park , H.-R. Kim , Y. Kim , J. Kim , J. Hong , S.-D. Lee , and B. Lee , “ Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging ,” Opt. Lett.   29 , 2734 – 2736 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jung , J.-H. Park , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 2513 – 2520 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lee , S. Jung , and J.-H. Park , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 818 – 820 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Park , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 6875 – 6883 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lee , S. Jung , S.-W. Min , and J.-H. Park , “ Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes ,” Opt. Lett.   26 , 1481 – 1482 , ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , and B. Lee , “ Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 5217 – 5232 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Min , S. Jung , J.-H. Park , and B. Lee , “ Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography ,” The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE   4297 , 187 – 195 , San Jose, USA, Jan. ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Saavedra, G.

Shin, S.-H.

Ueda, M.

Y. Igarishi , H. Murata , and M. Ueda , “ 3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph ,” Japanese J. Appl. Phys.   17 , 1683 – 1684 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, T.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (10)

F. Okano , H. Hoshino , J. Arai , and I. Yuyama , “ Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography ,” Appl. Opt.   36 , 1598 – 1603 ( 1997 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Okoshi , “ Optimum design and depth resolution of lens-sheet and projection-type three-dimensional displays ,” Appl. Opt.   10 , 2284 – 2291 ( 1971 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim , J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing-angle integral three-dimensional imaging system by curving a screen and a lens array ,” Appl. Opt.   44 , pp. 546 – 552 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-H. Shin and B. Javidi , “ Speckle reduced three-dimensional volume holographic display using integral imaging ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 2644 – 2649 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Frauel and B. Javidi , “ Digital three-dimensional image correlation by use of computer-reconstructed integral imaging ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 5488 – 5496 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Martínez-Corral , B. Javidi , R. Martínez-Cuenca , and G. Saavedra , “ Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude-modulated microlens arrays ,” Appl. Opt.   43 , 5806 – 5813 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Arai , F. Okano , H. Hoshino , and I. Yuyama , “ Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images ,” Appl. Opt.   37 , 2034 – 2045 ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Park , S.-W. Min , S. Jung , and B. Lee , “ Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography ,” Appl. Opt.   40 , 5217 – 5232 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

S. Jung , J.-H. Park , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching ,” Appl. Opt.   42 , 2513 – 2520 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park , S. Jung , H. Choi , and B. Lee , “ Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by elemental image resizing and elemental lens switching ,” Appl. Opt.   41 , 6875 – 6883 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences (1)

G. Lippmann , “ Épreuves réversibles. Photographies intégrales ,” Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences   146 , 446 – 451 ( 1908 ).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

S. Manolache , A. Aggoun , M. McCormick , N. Davies , and S. Y. Kung , “ Analytical model of a three-dimensional integral image recording system that uses circular and hexagonal-based spherical surface microlenses ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.   18 , 1814 – 1821 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Japanese J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Igarishi , H. Murata , and M. Ueda , “ 3D display system using a computer-generated integral photograph ,” Japanese J. Appl. Phys.   17 , 1683 – 1684 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S.-W. Min , S. Jung , J.-H. Park , and B. Lee , “ Three-dimensional display system based on computer-generated integral photography ,” The 2001 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE   4297 , 187 – 195 , San Jose, USA, Jan. ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic principle of conventional InIm: (a) real InIm; (b) virtual InIm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Basic structure of the proposed method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Principle of the 2D display mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Principle of the basic 3D display mode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Principles of the wide-viewing-angle method: (a) odd columns masking; (b) even columns masking.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pictures of experimental setup: (a) front view; (b) side view.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental results of the 2D display mode: (a) text contents; (b) image contents.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental results of the improved 3D display mode: (a) left viewpoint; (b) center viewpoint; (c) right viewpoint.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental results of the basic 3D display mode: (a) left viewpoint; (b) center viewpoint; (c) right viewpoint.

Equations (1)

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1 a + 1 b = 1 f ,

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