Abstract

Adaptively shaped, sub-picosecond pulses at 3.4μm are obtained from a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate. A simulated annealing algorithm is used in a learning loop to gain adaptive control of the mid-infrared idler pulse shape via shaping of a chirped near-infrared pump pulse. Both indirect control, via optimization of the signal average power, and direct control, via optimization of the two-photon absorption of the idler in an InGaAs detector, has been demonstrated. Both these optimization parameters lead to compressed idler pulses, with slightly differing pulse shapes. By optimization of the cross correlation signal in an interferometer with unequal arm lengths we are also able to deliver compressed double pulses with a variable time delay.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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Appl. Phys B. (1)

M. V. O�??Connor, M. A. Watson, D. P. Shepherd, and D. C. Hanna, �??Tuning of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator via a 4-plate birefringent filter,�?? Appl. Phys B. 79, 15-23 (2004).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Witte, K. L. Kompa, and M. Motzkus, �??Femtosecond pulse shaping in the mid infrared by difference-frequency mixing,�?? Appl. Phys. B 76, 467-471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Wafers and K. A. Nelson, �??Space-time profiles of shaped ultrafast optical waveforms,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 161-172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. G. Omenetto, D. H. Reitze, B. P. Luce, M. D. Moores, and A. J. Taylor, �??Adaptive control methods for ultrafast pulse propagation in optical fibers,�?? IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron., 8 690-698 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. (1)

D. C. Hanna, M. V. O�??Connor, M. A. Watson, and D. P. Shepherd, �??Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator with diffraction-grating tuning,�?? J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 34, 2440-2454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Op. Lett. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov, O. Levi, P. S. Kuo, T. J. Pinguet, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, �??Optical parametric oscillation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs,�?? Op. Lett. 29, 1912-1914 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. M. H. Knippels, A. F. G. van der Meer, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, P. W. van Amersfoot, R. B. Vrijen, D. Maas, and L. D. Noordam, �??Generation of frequency chirped pulses in the far-infrared by means of a sub-picosecond free-electron laser and an external pulse shaper,�?? Opt. Commun. 118, 546-550 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

M. A. Watson, M. V. O�??Connor, P. S. Lloyd, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, C. B. E. Gawith, L. Ming, P. G. R. Smith, and O. Balachninaite, �??Extended operation of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators to longer idler wavelengths,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 2106-2108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Watson, M. V. O�??Connor, D. P. Shepherd, and D. C. Hanna, �??Synchronously pumped CdSe optical parametric oscillator in the 9-10µm region,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 957-959 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. �??S. Tan, E. Schreiber, and W. S. Warren, �??High-resolution indirect pulse shaping by parametric transfer,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 439-441 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Eickemeyer, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woernaer, T. Elsaesser, and A. M. Weiner, �??Controlled shaping of ultrafast electric field transients in the mid-infrared spectral range,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 1472-1474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Witte, D. Zeidler, D. Proch, K. L. Kompa, and M. Motzkus, �??Programmable amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses in the mid-infrared,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 131-133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. V. O�??Connor, M. A. Watson, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, L. Lefort, J. H. V. Price, A. Malinowski, J. Nilsson, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, �??Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator driven by a femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1052-1054 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Lefort, K. Puech, S. D. Butterworth, Y. P. Svirko, and D. C. Hanna, �??Generation of femtosecond pulses from order-of-magnitude pulse compression in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 28-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. S. Judson and H. Rabitz, �??Teaching lasers to control molecules,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1500-1503 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, �??Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,�?? Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Ingber, �??Very Fast Simulated Re-annealing,�?? Math. Comput. Model. 12, 967-973 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Ingber, �??Simulated annealing: Practice versus theory,�?? Math. Comput. Model. 18, 29-57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Full system schematic: L1,2 are X6 microscope objectives; the cylindrical beam expander consists of -160mm and +500mm focal length lenses; the 5cm-wide diffraction gratings have 1740 lines/mm; L3,4 are 250mm focal length cylindrical lenses; L5 is a 150mm focal length spherical lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pump pulse spectrum and second harmonic intensity autocorrelation after fiber

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Programmed compressed pump pulse intensity autocorrelation

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Interferometric idler autocorrelations for (a) adaptively applied phase for optimization of idler two-photon absorption, (b) no applied phase (chirped pump pulse), and (c) programmed phase for pump pulse compression. Idler autocorrelations obtained for signal power optimization are very similar to that shown for the programmed phase (c) and so are not shown here.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Interferometric idler autocorrelations for double pulses with a variable time delay, produced by optimization of the cross-correlation signal at various arm length offsets.

Equations (2)

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ϕ ( ω ) = ϕ ( ω 0 ) + ϕ ' ( ω ω 0 ) + 1 2 ! ϕ '' ( ω ω 0 ) 2
+ 1 3 ! ϕ ''' ( ω ω 0 ) 3 + 1 4 ! ϕ '''' ( ω ω 0 ) 4

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