Abstract

We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Syms and J. Cozens , “ Coupled mode devices ,” in Optical Guided Waves and Devices , ( McGraw-Hill International Ltd. , 1992 ), pp. 1 – 31 .
  2. Standard ITU-G 983.1 “ Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON) ” ( International Communication Union , January 2005 ), http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.asp?type=products&lang=e&parent=T-REC-G .
  3. J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Broadband silica-based optical waveguide coupler with asymmetric structure ,” Electron. Lett.   26 , 132 – 133 , ( 1990 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Jinguji , N. Takato , A. Sugita , and M. Kawachi , “ Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio ,” Electon. Lett.   26 , 1326 – 1327 , ( 1990 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Takagi , N. Takato , Y. Hida , T. Oguchi , and T. Nozawa , “ Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1700 – 1702 , ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Svalgaard , C. V. Poulsen , A. Bjarklev , and O. Poulsen , “ Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 1401 – 1402 , ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Leick , “ Fabrication and characterization ,” in Silica-on-silicon optical couplers and coupler based optical filters , ( PhD thesis, COM-Technical University of Denmark , 2002 ), pp. 28 – 30 .
  10. Lasse Leick , Ignis Photonyx A/S, blokken 84, 3460, Birkerød, Denmark ( private communication , 2005 ).
  11. G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie , “ Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   31 , 1694 – 1695 , ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Zauner , K. Kulstad , J. Rathje , and M. Svalgaard , “ Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1582 – 1584 , ( 1998 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. J. Lemaire , R. M. Atkins , V. Mizrahi , and W.A. Reed , “ High pressure H 2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO 2 doped optical fibres ,” Electon. Lett.   29 , 1191 – 1193 ( 1993 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Svalgaard , K. Færch , and L.U. Andersen , “ Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   21–9 , 2097 – 2103 , ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Svalgaard , “ Effect of D 2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   35 , 1840 – 1841 , ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
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  18. R.A. Betts , F. Lui , and T.W. Whitbread , “ Non destructive two-dimensional refractive index profiling of integrated optical waveguides by an interferometric method ,” Appl. Opt.   30 , 4384 – 4389 , ( 1991 ).
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  19. T. Erdogan , V. Mizrahi , P. J. Lemarie , and D. Monroe , “ Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings ,” J. Appl. Phys.   76 , 73 – 80 , ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Wavelength Characteristics of (2 × 2) Optical Channel-Type Directional Couplers with Symmetric or Nonsymmetric Coupling Structures ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   10–6 , 735 – 746 , ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Færch and M. Svalgaard , “ Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   14 , 173 – 175 , ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Hewlett , J. Love , and V. Steblina , “ Analysis and design of highly broad-band, planar evanescent couplers ,” Opt. Quantum Electron.   28–1 , 71 – 81 , ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. Leick , J. H. Povlsen , and R. J. S. Pedersen , “ Achieving small process tolerant wavelength-flattened 3dB directional couplers in Silica-on-Silicon ,” presented at Integrated Photonic Research 2000, Quebec City, Canada , July 2000 .

2005 (1)

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard , K. Færch , and L.U. Andersen , “ Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   21–9 , 2097 – 2103 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Færch and M. Svalgaard , “ Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   14 , 173 – 175 , ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Svalgaard , “ Effect of D 2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   35 , 1840 – 1841 , ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. Zauner , K. Kulstad , J. Rathje , and M. Svalgaard , “ Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1582 – 1584 , ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. Takagi , N. Takato , Y. Hida , T. Oguchi , and T. Nozawa , “ Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1700 – 1702 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

S. Hewlett , J. Love , and V. Steblina , “ Analysis and design of highly broad-band, planar evanescent couplers ,” Opt. Quantum Electron.   28–1 , 71 – 81 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie , “ Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   31 , 1694 – 1695 , ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

M. Svalgaard , C. V. Poulsen , A. Bjarklev , and O. Poulsen , “ Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 1401 – 1402 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

T. Erdogan , V. Mizrahi , P. J. Lemarie , and D. Monroe , “ Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings ,” J. Appl. Phys.   76 , 73 – 80 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. J. Lemaire , R. M. Atkins , V. Mizrahi , and W.A. Reed , “ High pressure H 2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO 2 doped optical fibres ,” Electon. Lett.   29 , 1191 – 1193 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Wavelength Characteristics of (2 × 2) Optical Channel-Type Directional Couplers with Symmetric or Nonsymmetric Coupling Structures ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   10–6 , 735 – 746 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Broadband silica-based optical waveguide coupler with asymmetric structure ,” Electron. Lett.   26 , 132 – 133 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

K. Jinguji , N. Takato , A. Sugita , and M. Kawachi , “ Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio ,” Electon. Lett.   26 , 1326 – 1327 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Ainslie, B.J.

G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie , “ Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   31 , 1694 – 1695 , ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Andersen, L.U.

M. Svalgaard , K. Færch , and L.U. Andersen , “ Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   21–9 , 2097 – 2103 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire , R. M. Atkins , V. Mizrahi , and W.A. Reed , “ High pressure H 2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO 2 doped optical fibres ,” Electon. Lett.   29 , 1191 – 1193 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Berger, J. P.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Betts, R.A.

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard , C. V. Poulsen , A. Bjarklev , and O. Poulsen , “ Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 1401 – 1402 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L.

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Cappuzzo, M.

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Carleton, N.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Chen, E.

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Cozens, J.

R. Syms and J. Cozens , “ Coupled mode devices ,” in Optical Guided Waves and Devices , ( McGraw-Hill International Ltd. , 1992 ), pp. 1 – 31 .

Delboulbe, A.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan , V. Mizrahi , P. J. Lemarie , and D. Monroe , “ Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings ,” J. Appl. Phys.   76 , 73 – 80 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Færch, K.

M. Svalgaard , K. Færch , and L.U. Andersen , “ Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   21–9 , 2097 – 2103 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

K. Færch and M. Svalgaard , “ Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   14 , 173 – 175 , ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Gluck, S.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Gomez, L.

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Griffin, A.

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Haguenauer, P.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Hewlett, S.

S. Hewlett , J. Love , and V. Steblina , “ Analysis and design of highly broad-band, planar evanescent couplers ,” Opt. Quantum Electron.   28–1 , 71 – 81 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Hida, Y.

A. Takagi , N. Takato , Y. Hida , T. Oguchi , and T. Nozawa , “ Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1700 – 1702 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Jinguji, K.

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Wavelength Characteristics of (2 × 2) Optical Channel-Type Directional Couplers with Symmetric or Nonsymmetric Coupling Structures ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   10–6 , 735 – 746 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Broadband silica-based optical waveguide coupler with asymmetric structure ,” Electron. Lett.   26 , 132 – 133 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

K. Jinguji , N. Takato , A. Sugita , and M. Kawachi , “ Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio ,” Electon. Lett.   26 , 1326 – 1327 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Wavelength Characteristics of (2 × 2) Optical Channel-Type Directional Couplers with Symmetric or Nonsymmetric Coupling Structures ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   10–6 , 735 – 746 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Broadband silica-based optical waveguide coupler with asymmetric structure ,” Electron. Lett.   26 , 132 – 133 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

K. Jinguji , N. Takato , A. Sugita , and M. Kawachi , “ Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio ,” Electon. Lett.   26 , 1326 – 1327 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Kern, P.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Kulstad, K.

D. Zauner , K. Kulstad , J. Rathje , and M. Svalgaard , “ Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1582 – 1584 , ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Lagny, L.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Laurent, L.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Leick, L.

L. Leick , “ Fabrication and characterization ,” in Silica-on-silicon optical couplers and coupler based optical filters , ( PhD thesis, COM-Technical University of Denmark , 2002 ), pp. 28 – 30 .

L. Leick , J. H. Povlsen , and R. J. S. Pedersen , “ Achieving small process tolerant wavelength-flattened 3dB directional couplers in Silica-on-Silicon ,” presented at Integrated Photonic Research 2000, Quebec City, Canada , July 2000 .

Leick, Lasse

Lasse Leick , Ignis Photonyx A/S, blokken 84, 3460, Birkerød, Denmark ( private communication , 2005 ).

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire , R. M. Atkins , V. Mizrahi , and W.A. Reed , “ High pressure H 2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO 2 doped optical fibres ,” Electon. Lett.   29 , 1191 – 1193 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Lemarie, P. J.

T. Erdogan , V. Mizrahi , P. J. Lemarie , and D. Monroe , “ Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings ,” J. Appl. Phys.   76 , 73 – 80 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Love, J.

S. Hewlett , J. Love , and V. Steblina , “ Analysis and design of highly broad-band, planar evanescent couplers ,” Opt. Quantum Electron.   28–1 , 71 – 81 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Lui, F.

Malbet, F.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, G.D.

G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie , “ Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   31 , 1694 – 1695 , ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Millan-Gabet, R.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan , V. Mizrahi , P. J. Lemarie , and D. Monroe , “ Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings ,” J. Appl. Phys.   76 , 73 – 80 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

P. J. Lemaire , R. M. Atkins , V. Mizrahi , and W.A. Reed , “ High pressure H 2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO 2 doped optical fibres ,” Electon. Lett.   29 , 1191 – 1193 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Monnier, J. D.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan , V. Mizrahi , P. J. Lemarie , and D. Monroe , “ Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings ,” J. Appl. Phys.   76 , 73 – 80 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Nozawa, T.

A. Takagi , N. Takato , Y. Hida , T. Oguchi , and T. Nozawa , “ Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1700 – 1702 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Oguchi, T.

A. Takagi , N. Takato , Y. Hida , T. Oguchi , and T. Nozawa , “ Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1700 – 1702 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, R. J. S.

L. Leick , J. H. Povlsen , and R. J. S. Pedersen , “ Achieving small process tolerant wavelength-flattened 3dB directional couplers in Silica-on-Silicon ,” presented at Integrated Photonic Research 2000, Quebec City, Canada , July 2000 .

Pedretti, F.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Perraut, K.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, C. V.

M. Svalgaard , C. V. Poulsen , A. Bjarklev , and O. Poulsen , “ Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 1401 – 1402 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgaard , C. V. Poulsen , A. Bjarklev , and O. Poulsen , “ Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 1401 – 1402 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Povlsen, J. H.

L. Leick , J. H. Povlsen , and R. J. S. Pedersen , “ Achieving small process tolerant wavelength-flattened 3dB directional couplers in Silica-on-Silicon ,” presented at Integrated Photonic Research 2000, Quebec City, Canada , July 2000 .

Ragland, S.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Rathje, J.

D. Zauner , K. Kulstad , J. Rathje , and M. Svalgaard , “ Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1582 – 1584 , ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Reed, W.A.

P. J. Lemaire , R. M. Atkins , V. Mizrahi , and W.A. Reed , “ High pressure H 2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO 2 doped optical fibres ,” Electon. Lett.   29 , 1191 – 1193 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Schanen, I.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Steblina, V.

S. Hewlett , J. Love , and V. Steblina , “ Analysis and design of highly broad-band, planar evanescent couplers ,” Opt. Quantum Electron.   28–1 , 71 – 81 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Sugita, A.

K. Jinguji , N. Takato , A. Sugita , and M. Kawachi , “ Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio ,” Electon. Lett.   26 , 1326 – 1327 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Svalgaard, M.

M. Svalgaard , K. Færch , and L.U. Andersen , “ Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   21–9 , 2097 – 2103 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

K. Færch and M. Svalgaard , “ Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   14 , 173 – 175 , ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard , “ Effect of D 2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   35 , 1840 – 1841 , ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

D. Zauner , K. Kulstad , J. Rathje , and M. Svalgaard , “ Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1582 – 1584 , ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard , C. V. Poulsen , A. Bjarklev , and O. Poulsen , “ Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 1401 – 1402 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Syms, R.

R. Syms and J. Cozens , “ Coupled mode devices ,” in Optical Guided Waves and Devices , ( McGraw-Hill International Ltd. , 1992 ), pp. 1 – 31 .

Takagi, A.

A. Takagi , N. Takato , Y. Hida , T. Oguchi , and T. Nozawa , “ Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1700 – 1702 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Wavelength Characteristics of (2 × 2) Optical Channel-Type Directional Couplers with Symmetric or Nonsymmetric Coupling Structures ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   10–6 , 735 – 746 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Broadband silica-based optical waveguide coupler with asymmetric structure ,” Electron. Lett.   26 , 132 – 133 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Takato, N.

A. Takagi , N. Takato , Y. Hida , T. Oguchi , and T. Nozawa , “ Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1700 – 1702 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

K. Jinguji , N. Takato , A. Sugita , and M. Kawachi , “ Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio ,” Electon. Lett.   26 , 1326 – 1327 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Tatulli, E.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Traub, W.

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Whitbread, T.W.

Wong-Foy, A.

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

Zauner, D.

D. Zauner , K. Kulstad , J. Rathje , and M. Svalgaard , “ Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1582 – 1584 , ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electon. Lett. (2)

P. J. Lemaire , R. M. Atkins , V. Mizrahi , and W.A. Reed , “ High pressure H 2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO 2 doped optical fibres ,” Electon. Lett.   29 , 1191 – 1193 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

K. Jinguji , N. Takato , A. Sugita , and M. Kawachi , “ Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio ,” Electon. Lett.   26 , 1326 – 1327 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (6)

A. Takagi , N. Takato , Y. Hida , T. Oguchi , and T. Nozawa , “ Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1700 – 1702 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard , C. V. Poulsen , A. Bjarklev , and O. Poulsen , “ Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films ,” Electron. Lett.   30 , 1401 – 1402 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Broadband silica-based optical waveguide coupler with asymmetric structure ,” Electron. Lett.   26 , 132 – 133 , ( 1990 ).
[Crossref]

G.D. Maxwell and B.J. Ainslie , “ Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   31 , 1694 – 1695 , ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

D. Zauner , K. Kulstad , J. Rathje , and M. Svalgaard , “ Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss ,” Electron. Lett.   34 , 1582 – 1584 , ( 1998 ).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard , “ Effect of D 2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   35 , 1840 – 1841 , ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

C. R. Doerr , M. Cappuzzo , E. Chen , A. Wong-Foy , L. Gomez , A. Griffin , and L. Buhl , “ Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2×2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   17–6 , 1211 – 1213 ( 2005 ).
[Crossref]

K. Færch and M. Svalgaard , “ Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing ,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.   14 , 173 – 175 , ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan , V. Mizrahi , P. J. Lemarie , and D. Monroe , “ Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings ,” J. Appl. Phys.   76 , 73 – 80 , ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. Takagi , K. Jinguji , and M. Kawachi , “ Wavelength Characteristics of (2 × 2) Optical Channel-Type Directional Couplers with Symmetric or Nonsymmetric Coupling Structures ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   10–6 , 735 – 746 , ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

M. Svalgaard , K. Færch , and L.U. Andersen , “ Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing ,” J. Lightwave Technol.   21–9 , 2097 – 2103 , ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Hewlett , J. Love , and V. Steblina , “ Analysis and design of highly broad-band, planar evanescent couplers ,” Opt. Quantum Electron.   28–1 , 71 – 81 , ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. P. Berger , P. Haguenauer , P. Kern , K. Perraut , F. Malbet , S. Gluck , L. Lagny , I. Schanen , L. Laurent , A. Delboulbe , E. Tatulli , W. Traub , N. Carleton , R. Millan-Gabet , J. D. Monnier , F. Pedretti , and S. Ragland , “ An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA ,” Proc. SPIE   4838 , 1099 – 1106 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

R. Syms and J. Cozens , “ Coupled mode devices ,” in Optical Guided Waves and Devices , ( McGraw-Hill International Ltd. , 1992 ), pp. 1 – 31 .

Standard ITU-G 983.1 “ Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON) ” ( International Communication Union , January 2005 ), http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.asp?type=products&lang=e&parent=T-REC-G .

L. Leick , “ Fabrication and characterization ,” in Silica-on-silicon optical couplers and coupler based optical filters , ( PhD thesis, COM-Technical University of Denmark , 2002 ), pp. 28 – 30 .

Lasse Leick , Ignis Photonyx A/S, blokken 84, 3460, Birkerød, Denmark ( private communication , 2005 ).

Renishaw tutorial, http://www.renishaw.com/UserFiles/acrobat/UKEnglish/GEN-NEW-0117.pdf

Newport tutorial, http://www.newport.com/servicesupport/Tutorials/default.aspx?id=143

L. Leick , J. H. Povlsen , and R. J. S. Pedersen , “ Achieving small process tolerant wavelength-flattened 3dB directional couplers in Silica-on-Silicon ,” presented at Integrated Photonic Research 2000, Quebec City, Canada , July 2000 .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the setup used for direct UV writing

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Waveguide index step and width versus the applied scan velocity

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Layout of a UV written broadband coupler. The arms of the coupler are written in two subsequent scans. The colors indicate the scan velocities applied in the different sections. The length of the straight section in the middle of the coupling region is chosen to achieve the desired coupling ratio

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured coupling ratio at 1557 nm versus length of the straight section in the central coupling region for various velocities v1 and a fixed velocity v2 =900 μm/s. For each dataset is fitted the sin2 behavior expected from coupled mode theory. (b) Peak coupling ratio versus the velocity of the first scan v1 .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral variation of the coupling ratio for various asymmetric couplers. A measurement of a typical symmetric coupler is included for comparison.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Bandwidth for 0.5 dB flatness versus the peak coupling ratio for two different velocities v1 (both with v2 =900 μm/s). The error bars correspond to a measurement uncertainty of ±15 nm. Each dataset is fitted with a straight line to highlight the trend.

Equations (1)

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P 2 = F 2 · sin 2 ( C F L )

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