Abstract

We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Syms, J. Cozens, �??Coupled mode devices,�?? in Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill International Ltd., 1992), pp. 1-31
  2. Standard ITU-G 983.1 �??Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON)�?? (International Communication Union, January 2005), <a href="http://www.itu.int/home/index.html."> http://www.itu.int/home/index.html.</a>
  3. J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, S. Gluck, L. Lagny, I. Schanen, L. Laurent, A. Delboulbe, E. Tatulli, W. Traub, N. Carleton, R. Millan-Gabet, J. D. Monnier, F. Pedretti, S. Ragland, �??An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA,�?? Proc. SPIE 4838, 1099-1106 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, �??Broadband silica-based optical waveguide coupler with asymmetric structure,�?? Electron. Lett. 26, 132-133, (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, M. Kawachi, �??Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,�?? Electon. Lett. 26, 1326-1327, (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Takagi, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Oguchi, T. Nozawa, �??Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions,�?? Electron. Lett. 32, 1700-1702, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, L. Buhl, �??Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2x2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17-6, 1211-1213 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, �??Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,�?? Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402, (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Leick, �??Fabrication and characterization,�?? in Silica -on -silicon optical couplers and coupler based optical filters, (PhD thesis, COM -Technical University of Denmark, 2002), pp. 28-30
  10. Lasse Leick, Ignis Photonyx A/S, blokken 84, 3460, Birkerød, Denmark (private communication, 2005).
  11. G.D. Maxwell, B.J. Ainslie, �??Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,�?? Electron. Lett. 31, 1694-1695, (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, M. Svalgaard, �??Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 1582-1584, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W.A. Reed, �??High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,�?? Electon. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Svalgaard M., Færch K., Andersen L.U., �??Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 21-9, 2097-2103, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Svalgaard, �??Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides,�?? Electron. Lett. 35, 1840-1841, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Renishaw tutorial, <a href="http://www.renishaw.com/UserFiles/acrobat/UKEnglish/GEN-NEW-0117.pdf"> http://www.renishaw.com/UserFiles/acrobat/UKEnglish/GEN-NEW-0117.pdf</a>
  17. Newport tutorial, <a href="http://www.newport.com/servicesupport/Tutorials/default.aspx?id=143">http://www.newport.com/servicesupport/Tutorials/default.aspx?id=143</a>
  18. R.A. Betts, F. Lui, T.W. Whitbread, �??Non destructive two-dimensional refractive index profiling of integrated optical waveguides by an interferometric method,�?? Appl. Opt. 30, 4384-4389, (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, D. Monroe, �??Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80, (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, �??Wavelength Characteristics of (2 �? 2) Optical Channe-Type Directional Couplers with Symmetric or Nonsymmetric Coupling Structures,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 10-6, 735-746, (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Færch, M. Svalgaard, �??Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Hewlett, J. Love, V. Steblina, �??Analysis and design of highly broad-band, planar evanescent couplers,�?? Opt. Quantum Electron. 28-1, 71-81, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Leick, J. H. Povlsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, �??Achieving small process tolerant wavelength-flattened 3dB directional couplers in Silica-on-Silicon,�?? presented at Integrated Photonic Research 2000, Quebec City, Canada, July 2000.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electon. Lett. (2)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W.A. Reed, �??High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,�?? Electon. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, M. Kawachi, �??Mach-Zender interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,�?? Electon. Lett. 26, 1326-1327, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

A. Takagi, N. Takato, Y. Hida, T. Oguchi, T. Nozawa, �??Silica-based line-symmetric series-tapered (LSST) broadband directional coupler with asymmetric guides only in their parallel coupling regions,�?? Electron. Lett. 32, 1700-1702, (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, �??Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,�?? Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402, (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, �??Broadband silica-based optical waveguide coupler with asymmetric structure,�?? Electron. Lett. 26, 132-133, (1990).
[CrossRef]

G.D. Maxwell, B.J. Ainslie, �??Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide,�?? Electron. Lett. 31, 1694-1695, (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, M. Svalgaard, �??Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 1582-1584, (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Svalgaard, �??Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of waveguides,�?? Electron. Lett. 35, 1840-1841, (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, L. Buhl, �??Bending of a Planar Lightwave Circuit 2x2 Coupler to Desensitize it to Wavelength, Polarization, and Fabrication Changes,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17-6, 1211-1213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Færch, M. Svalgaard, �??Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 173-175, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemarie, D. Monroe, �??Decay of ultra-violet-light induced Bragg gratings,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, �??Wavelength Characteristics of (2 �? 2) Optical Channe-Type Directional Couplers with Symmetric or Nonsymmetric Coupling Structures,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 10-6, 735-746, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Svalgaard M., Færch K., Andersen L.U., �??Variable Optical Attenuator Fabricated by Direct UV Writing,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 21-9, 2097-2103, (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGraw-Hill International Ltd (1)

R. Syms, J. Cozens, �??Coupled mode devices,�?? in Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill International Ltd., 1992), pp. 1-31

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Hewlett, J. Love, V. Steblina, �??Analysis and design of highly broad-band, planar evanescent couplers,�?? Opt. Quantum Electron. 28-1, 71-81, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, S. Gluck, L. Lagny, I. Schanen, L. Laurent, A. Delboulbe, E. Tatulli, W. Traub, N. Carleton, R. Millan-Gabet, J. D. Monnier, F. Pedretti, S. Ragland, �??An integrated-optics 3-way beam combiner for IOTA,�?? Proc. SPIE 4838, 1099-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Standard ITU-G 983.1 �??Broadband optical access systems based on Passive Optical Networks (PON)�?? (International Communication Union, January 2005), <a href="http://www.itu.int/home/index.html."> http://www.itu.int/home/index.html.</a>

L. Leick, �??Fabrication and characterization,�?? in Silica -on -silicon optical couplers and coupler based optical filters, (PhD thesis, COM -Technical University of Denmark, 2002), pp. 28-30

Lasse Leick, Ignis Photonyx A/S, blokken 84, 3460, Birkerød, Denmark (private communication, 2005).

Renishaw tutorial, <a href="http://www.renishaw.com/UserFiles/acrobat/UKEnglish/GEN-NEW-0117.pdf"> http://www.renishaw.com/UserFiles/acrobat/UKEnglish/GEN-NEW-0117.pdf</a>

Newport tutorial, <a href="http://www.newport.com/servicesupport/Tutorials/default.aspx?id=143">http://www.newport.com/servicesupport/Tutorials/default.aspx?id=143</a>

L. Leick, J. H. Povlsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, �??Achieving small process tolerant wavelength-flattened 3dB directional couplers in Silica-on-Silicon,�?? presented at Integrated Photonic Research 2000, Quebec City, Canada, July 2000.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the setup used for direct UV writing

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Waveguide index step and width versus the applied scan velocity

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Layout of a UV written broadband coupler. The arms of the coupler are written in two subsequent scans. The colors indicate the scan velocities applied in the different sections. The length of the straight section in the middle of the coupling region is chosen to achieve the desired coupling ratio

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured coupling ratio at 1557 nm versus length of the straight section in the central coupling region for various velocities v1 and a fixed velocity v2 =900 μm/s. For each dataset is fitted the sin2 behavior expected from coupled mode theory. (b) Peak coupling ratio versus the velocity of the first scan v1 .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectral variation of the coupling ratio for various asymmetric couplers. A measurement of a typical symmetric coupler is included for comparison.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Bandwidth for 0.5 dB flatness versus the peak coupling ratio for two different velocities v1 (both with v2 =900 μm/s). The error bars correspond to a measurement uncertainty of ±15 nm. Each dataset is fitted with a straight line to highlight the trend.

Equations (1)

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P 2 = F 2 · sin 2 ( C F L )

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