Abstract

A simplified calibration strategy is presented to calibrate a recently proposed optical frequency domain six-port reflectometer for measuring dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) devices. The calibration technique only requires three calibration standards that can be easily obtained. Realistic simulation results of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) measurement show that excellent accuracy can be obtained with this technique.

©2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies,” Opt. Express 13, 666–674 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-666
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated optica waveguides”, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1377–1384 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Baney, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 263–265 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. V. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3x3 fiber couplers”, Opt. Express 13, 957–967 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. I. Molina Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert Pérez, A. Ortega Moñux, R. G. Bosisio, and Ke Wu, “Planar Lightwave Circuit Six-Port Technique for Optical Measurements and Characterizations”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2148–2157 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. I. Molina-Fernández and J. de-Oliva-Rubio, “Effects of phase noise in an optical six-port measurement technique,” Opt. Express 13, 2475–2486 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-7-2475
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G.F. Engen, “The six-port reflectometer: an alternative network analyzer”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 25, 1075–1080 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. F. Engen, “Calibrating the six-port reflectometer by means of sliding terminations”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 26, 951–957 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. Wiedmann, B. Huyart, E. Bergeault, and L. Jallet, “A new robust method for six-port reflectometer calibration,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 927–931 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. A. Chahine, B. Huyart, and J. Achkar, “Reflectometer Calibration Without an Open Circuit”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1488–1493 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. Turan Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2005 (4)

2003 (2)

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Baney, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. Chahine, B. Huyart, and J. Achkar, “Reflectometer Calibration Without an Open Circuit”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1488–1493 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

F. Wiedmann, B. Huyart, E. Bergeault, and L. Jallet, “A new robust method for six-port reflectometer calibration,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 927–931 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Turan Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated optica waveguides”, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1377–1384 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

G. F. Engen, “Calibrating the six-port reflectometer by means of sliding terminations”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 26, 951–957 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

G.F. Engen, “The six-port reflectometer: an alternative network analyzer”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 25, 1075–1080 (1977).
[Crossref]

Achkar, J.

S. A. Chahine, B. Huyart, and J. Achkar, “Reflectometer Calibration Without an Open Circuit”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1488–1493 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baney, D. M.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Baney, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bergeault, E.

F. Wiedmann, B. Huyart, E. Bergeault, and L. Jallet, “A new robust method for six-port reflectometer calibration,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 927–931 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bosisio, R. G.

I. Molina Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert Pérez, A. Ortega Moñux, R. G. Bosisio, and Ke Wu, “Planar Lightwave Circuit Six-Port Technique for Optical Measurements and Characterizations”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2148–2157 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brinkmeyer, E.

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated optica waveguides”, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1377–1384 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chahine, S. A.

S. A. Chahine, B. Huyart, and J. Achkar, “Reflectometer Calibration Without an Open Circuit”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1488–1493 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

de-Oliva-Rubio, J.

Engen, G. F.

G. F. Engen, “Calibrating the six-port reflectometer by means of sliding terminations”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 26, 951–957 (1978).
[Crossref]

Engen, G.F.

G.F. Engen, “The six-port reflectometer: an alternative network analyzer”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 25, 1075–1080 (1977).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, Turan

Turan Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Froggatt, M. E.

Fujimoto, J.G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gifford, D. K.

Glombitza, U.

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated optica waveguides”, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1377–1384 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huyart, B.

S. A. Chahine, B. Huyart, and J. Achkar, “Reflectometer Calibration Without an Open Circuit”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1488–1493 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Wiedmann, B. Huyart, E. Bergeault, and L. Jallet, “A new robust method for six-port reflectometer calibration,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 927–931 (1999).
[Crossref]

Izatt, J. A.

Jallet, L.

F. Wiedmann, B. Huyart, E. Bergeault, and L. Jallet, “A new robust method for six-port reflectometer calibration,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 927–931 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molina Fernández, I.

I. Molina Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert Pérez, A. Ortega Moñux, R. G. Bosisio, and Ke Wu, “Planar Lightwave Circuit Six-Port Technique for Optical Measurements and Characterizations”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2148–2157 (2005).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Motamedi, A. R.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Baney, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ortega Moñux, A.

I. Molina Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert Pérez, A. Ortega Moñux, R. G. Bosisio, and Ke Wu, “Planar Lightwave Circuit Six-Port Technique for Optical Measurements and Characterizations”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2148–2157 (2005).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soller, B. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

VanWiggeren, G. D.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Baney, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert Pérez, J. G.

I. Molina Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert Pérez, A. Ortega Moñux, R. G. Bosisio, and Ke Wu, “Planar Lightwave Circuit Six-Port Technique for Optical Measurements and Characterizations”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2148–2157 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wiedmann, F.

F. Wiedmann, B. Huyart, E. Bergeault, and L. Jallet, “A new robust method for six-port reflectometer calibration,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 927–931 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wolfe, M. S.

Wu, Ke

I. Molina Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert Pérez, A. Ortega Moñux, R. G. Bosisio, and Ke Wu, “Planar Lightwave Circuit Six-Port Technique for Optical Measurements and Characterizations”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2148–2157 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

I. Molina Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert Pérez, A. Ortega Moñux, R. G. Bosisio, and Ke Wu, “Planar Lightwave Circuit Six-Port Technique for Optical Measurements and Characterizations”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2148–2157 (2005).
[Crossref]

Turan Erdogan, “Fiber Grating Spectra”, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, and D. M. Baney, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 263–265 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

F. Wiedmann, B. Huyart, E. Bergeault, and L. Jallet, “A new robust method for six-port reflectometer calibration,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 927–931 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. A. Chahine, B. Huyart, and J. Achkar, “Reflectometer Calibration Without an Open Circuit”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 1488–1493 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

G.F. Engen, “The six-port reflectometer: an alternative network analyzer”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 25, 1075–1080 (1977).
[Crossref]

G. F. Engen, “Calibrating the six-port reflectometer by means of sliding terminations”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 26, 951–957 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

U. Glombitza and E. Brinkmeyer, “Coherent frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated optica waveguides”, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1377–1384 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Six-port reflectometer for DUT’s complex reflection coefficient measurement
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Variation of |q3 | with wavelength for the complete six-port setup with L=40 cm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison of ideal calibration constant w1 and the one obtained with VSM calibration. λ0 =1550nm, R= -40 dB, Lf =1.63 m, Δλ=0.1 pm (a) L=40 cm; (b) L=20 cm; (c) L=10 cm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Plot of |γ(λ)| for complete six-port setup with different lengths of interconnecting fibers. λ0 =1550nm
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Maximum measurement errors due to calibration. Blue line: VSM calibration of W plane, and three standard calibration of Γ plane. Red line: VSM calibration of W plane, and two standard calibration of Γ plane. (a) L=40 cm; (b) L=20 cm; (c) L=10 cm
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Simulated DUT (ΓL=j ) impulse response showing parasitic echoes due to complete simplified calibration. a) Full time span (160 ns). L=10 cm, Lf =1.63 m. b) Structure of the first group of echoes. c) Low delay parasitic echoes
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Simulation of FBG measurement process
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Ideal and simulated FBG impulse response before filtering.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Simulated FBG measurement errors due to simplified calibration. (λ0 =1550 nm). (a) Return loss r(λ); (b) Return loss error; (c) Group delay τg(λ); (d) Group delay error

Equations (12)

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P i ( λ ) = K i ( λ ) b 2 ( λ ) 2 1 q i 1 ( λ ) Γ L ( λ ) 2 i = 3 . . . 6
p i ( λ ) = k i ( λ ) 1 q i 1 ( λ ) Γ L ( λ ) 2 1 q 4 1 ( λ ) Γ L ( λ ) 2 i = 3,5,6
u = p 3 + w 1 2 p 5 / ζ 2 w 1
v = p 3 p 6 / ρ + ( u 2 2 + v 2 2 ) 2 u u 2 2 v 2
w = u + j v
Γ k = exp [ j ( θ + 2 π 5 k ) ]
w = α Γ L + β γ Γ L + 1 Γ L = w + β γ w α
Γ k ( λ ) = e j 2 β ( λ k ) L f
Δ θ 2 ( λ ) d λ Δ λ L f = 4 π n eff λ 2 Δ λ L f = 2 π 5
e max ( λ ) = max j { Γ j Γ calc j }
r ( λ ) = Γ filt ( λ )
τ g ( λ ) = λ 2 2 π c d ( Γ filt ( λ ) )

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