Abstract

The gap of a planar-aligned liquid crystal (LC) cell is measured by a novel method: Monitoring the change in output wavelength of an external-cavity diode laser by varying the voltage driving the LC cell placed in the laser cavity. This method is particularly suitable for measurement of LC cells of small phase retardation. Measurement errors of ±0.5 % and ±0.6 % for 9.6-μm and 4.25-μm cells with phase retardations of 1.63 μm and 0.20 μm respectively are demonstrated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. H. Yang, “Measurements of empty cell gap for liquid-crystal displays using interferometry methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4780–4781 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Y. Yang and H. Takano, “Measurements of twisted nematic cell gap by spectral and split-beam interferometric methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 5–9 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  3. Shyu-Mou Chen, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Interferometric measurements of the thickness of nematic liquid crystal films with a free surface,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4969–4971 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Lien and H. Takano, “Cell gap measurement of filled twisted nematic liquid crystal displays by a phase compensation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1304–1309 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. Hiap Liew Ong, “Cell thickness and surface pretilt angle measurements of a planar liquid-crystal cell with obliquely incident light,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 140–144 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  6. Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. Marenori Kawamura, Yoshiaki Goto, and Susumu Sato, “Two-dimensional measurements of cell parameter distributions in reflective liquid crystal displays by using multiple wavelengths Stokes parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4371–4375 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. Zhan He, Ying Zhou, and Susumu, “A two-dimensional Stokes parameter method for determination of cell thickness and twist angle distributions in twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1982–1988 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. Jin Seog Gwag, Kyoung-Ho Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Simple cell gap measurement method for twisted-nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L30–L32 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. Xinyu Zhu, Wing-Kit Choi, and Shin-Tson Wu, “A simple method for measuring the cell gap of a reflective twisted nematic LCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 49, 1863–1867 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. Jong Seok Chae and Soo Gil Moon, “Cell parameter measurement of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell by the spectroscopic method,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3250–3254 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwok, “Transmissive liquid crystal cell parameters measurement by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 80–85 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  13. Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Cell gap measurement method for single-polarizer reflective liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3330–3331 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. Yu-Ping Lan, Chao-Yuan Chen, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Fine-tuning of a diode laser wavelength with a intracavity liquid crystal element,” Opt. Eng. 43, 234–238 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  15. Yu-Ping Lan, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Mode-hop-free fine-tuning of an external cavity diode laser with an intracavity liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 29, 510–512 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Shin-Tson Wu, Chiung-Sheng Wu, Marc Warenghem, and Mimoun Ismaili, “Refractive index disperasions of liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1775–1780 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  17. Ru-Pin Pan, Shyang-Rong Liou, and Chao-Ken Lin, “Voltage-controlled optical fiber coupler using a layer of low-refractive-index liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6410–6415 (1995).
    [Crossref]

2004 (5)

Marenori Kawamura, Yoshiaki Goto, and Susumu Sato, “Two-dimensional measurements of cell parameter distributions in reflective liquid crystal displays by using multiple wavelengths Stokes parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4371–4375 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jin Seog Gwag, Kyoung-Ho Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Simple cell gap measurement method for twisted-nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L30–L32 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jong Seok Chae and Soo Gil Moon, “Cell parameter measurement of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell by the spectroscopic method,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3250–3254 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu-Ping Lan, Chao-Yuan Chen, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Fine-tuning of a diode laser wavelength with a intracavity liquid crystal element,” Opt. Eng. 43, 234–238 (2004)
[Crossref]

Yu-Ping Lan, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Mode-hop-free fine-tuning of an external cavity diode laser with an intracavity liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 29, 510–512 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xinyu Zhu, Wing-Kit Choi, and Shin-Tson Wu, “A simple method for measuring the cell gap of a reflective twisted nematic LCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 49, 1863–1867 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwok, “Transmissive liquid crystal cell parameters measurement by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 80–85 (2001)
[Crossref]

Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Cell gap measurement method for single-polarizer reflective liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3330–3331 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Zhan He, Ying Zhou, and Susumu, “A two-dimensional Stokes parameter method for determination of cell thickness and twist angle distributions in twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1982–1988 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Ru-Pin Pan, Shyang-Rong Liou, and Chao-Ken Lin, “Voltage-controlled optical fiber coupler using a layer of low-refractive-index liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6410–6415 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Shin-Tson Wu, Chiung-Sheng Wu, Marc Warenghem, and Mimoun Ismaili, “Refractive index disperasions of liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1775–1780 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Hiap Liew Ong, “Cell thickness and surface pretilt angle measurements of a planar liquid-crystal cell with obliquely incident light,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 140–144 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. Lien and H. Takano, “Cell gap measurement of filled twisted nematic liquid crystal displays by a phase compensation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1304–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. Y. Yang and H. Takano, “Measurements of twisted nematic cell gap by spectral and split-beam interferometric methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 5–9 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

K. H. Yang, “Measurements of empty cell gap for liquid-crystal displays using interferometry methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4780–4781 (1988).
[Crossref]

Chae, Jong Seok

Jong Seok Chae and Soo Gil Moon, “Cell parameter measurement of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell by the spectroscopic method,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3250–3254 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, Chao-Yuan

Yu-Ping Lan, Chao-Yuan Chen, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Fine-tuning of a diode laser wavelength with a intracavity liquid crystal element,” Opt. Eng. 43, 234–238 (2004)
[Crossref]

Chen, Shyu-Mou

Choi, Wing-Kit

Xinyu Zhu, Wing-Kit Choi, and Shin-Tson Wu, “A simple method for measuring the cell gap of a reflective twisted nematic LCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 49, 1863–1867 (2002).
[Crossref]

Goto, Yoshiaki

Marenori Kawamura, Yoshiaki Goto, and Susumu Sato, “Two-dimensional measurements of cell parameter distributions in reflective liquid crystal displays by using multiple wavelengths Stokes parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4371–4375 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gwag, Jin Seog

Jin Seog Gwag, Kyoung-Ho Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Simple cell gap measurement method for twisted-nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L30–L32 (2004).
[Crossref]

Han, Kwan-Young

Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
[Crossref]

He, Zhan

Zhan He, Ying Zhou, and Susumu, “A two-dimensional Stokes parameter method for determination of cell thickness and twist angle distributions in twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1982–1988 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ismaili, Mimoun

Shin-Tson Wu, Chiung-Sheng Wu, Marc Warenghem, and Mimoun Ismaili, “Refractive index disperasions of liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1775–1780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, Marenori

Marenori Kawamura, Yoshiaki Goto, and Susumu Sato, “Two-dimensional measurements of cell parameter distributions in reflective liquid crystal displays by using multiple wavelengths Stokes parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4371–4375 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, Jae Chang

Jin Seog Gwag, Kyoung-Ho Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Simple cell gap measurement method for twisted-nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L30–L32 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Cell gap measurement method for single-polarizer reflective liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3330–3331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwok, “Transmissive liquid crystal cell parameters measurement by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 80–85 (2001)
[Crossref]

Lan, Yu-Ping

Yu-Ping Lan, Chao-Yuan Chen, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Fine-tuning of a diode laser wavelength with a intracavity liquid crystal element,” Opt. Eng. 43, 234–238 (2004)
[Crossref]

Yu-Ping Lan, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Mode-hop-free fine-tuning of an external cavity diode laser with an intracavity liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 29, 510–512 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Gi-Dong

Jin Seog Gwag, Kyoung-Ho Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Simple cell gap measurement method for twisted-nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L30–L32 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Cell gap measurement method for single-polarizer reflective liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3330–3331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, Seo Hern

Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lien, A.

A. Lien and H. Takano, “Cell gap measurement of filled twisted nematic liquid crystal displays by a phase compensation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1304–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lin, Chao-Ken

Ru-Pin Pan, Shyang-Rong Liou, and Chao-Ken Lin, “Voltage-controlled optical fiber coupler using a layer of low-refractive-index liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6410–6415 (1995).
[Crossref]

Liou, Shyang-Rong

Ru-Pin Pan, Shyang-Rong Liou, and Chao-Ken Lin, “Voltage-controlled optical fiber coupler using a layer of low-refractive-index liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6410–6415 (1995).
[Crossref]

Moon, Soo Gil

Jong Seok Chae and Soo Gil Moon, “Cell parameter measurement of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell by the spectroscopic method,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3250–3254 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ong, Hiap Liew

Hiap Liew Ong, “Cell thickness and surface pretilt angle measurements of a planar liquid-crystal cell with obliquely incident light,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 140–144 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pan, Ci-Ling

Pan, Ru-Pin

Yu-Ping Lan, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Mode-hop-free fine-tuning of an external cavity diode laser with an intracavity liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 29, 510–512 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu-Ping Lan, Chao-Yuan Chen, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Fine-tuning of a diode laser wavelength with a intracavity liquid crystal element,” Opt. Eng. 43, 234–238 (2004)
[Crossref]

Ru-Pin Pan, Shyang-Rong Liou, and Chao-Ken Lin, “Voltage-controlled optical fiber coupler using a layer of low-refractive-index liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6410–6415 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shyu-Mou Chen, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Interferometric measurements of the thickness of nematic liquid crystal films with a free surface,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4969–4971 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Kyoung-Ho

Jin Seog Gwag, Kyoung-Ho Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Simple cell gap measurement method for twisted-nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L30–L32 (2004).
[Crossref]

Park, Won Sang

Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sato, Susumu

Marenori Kawamura, Yoshiaki Goto, and Susumu Sato, “Two-dimensional measurements of cell parameter distributions in reflective liquid crystal displays by using multiple wavelengths Stokes parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4371–4375 (2004).
[Crossref]

Susumu,

Zhan He, Ying Zhou, and Susumu, “A two-dimensional Stokes parameter method for determination of cell thickness and twist angle distributions in twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1982–1988 (1998).
[Crossref]

Takano, H.

A. Lien and H. Takano, “Cell gap measurement of filled twisted nematic liquid crystal displays by a phase compensation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1304–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yang and H. Takano, “Measurements of twisted nematic cell gap by spectral and split-beam interferometric methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 5–9 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tang, S. T.

S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwok, “Transmissive liquid crystal cell parameters measurement by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 80–85 (2001)
[Crossref]

Warenghem, Marc

Shin-Tson Wu, Chiung-Sheng Wu, Marc Warenghem, and Mimoun Ismaili, “Refractive index disperasions of liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1775–1780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wu, Chiung-Sheng

Shin-Tson Wu, Chiung-Sheng Wu, Marc Warenghem, and Mimoun Ismaili, “Refractive index disperasions of liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1775–1780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wu, Shin-Tson

Xinyu Zhu, Wing-Kit Choi, and Shin-Tson Wu, “A simple method for measuring the cell gap of a reflective twisted nematic LCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 49, 1863–1867 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shin-Tson Wu, Chiung-Sheng Wu, Marc Warenghem, and Mimoun Ismaili, “Refractive index disperasions of liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1775–1780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. H.

K. H. Yang, “Measurements of empty cell gap for liquid-crystal displays using interferometry methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4780–4781 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

K. Y. Yang and H. Takano, “Measurements of twisted nematic cell gap by spectral and split-beam interferometric methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 5–9 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Tae-Hoon

Jin Seog Gwag, Kyoung-Ho Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Simple cell gap measurement method for twisted-nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L30–L32 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Cell gap measurement method for single-polarizer reflective liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3330–3331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Ying

Zhan He, Ying Zhou, and Susumu, “A two-dimensional Stokes parameter method for determination of cell thickness and twist angle distributions in twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1982–1988 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Xinyu

Xinyu Zhu, Wing-Kit Choi, and Shin-Tson Wu, “A simple method for measuring the cell gap of a reflective twisted nematic LCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 49, 1863–1867 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

Xinyu Zhu, Wing-Kit Choi, and Shin-Tson Wu, “A simple method for measuring the cell gap of a reflective twisted nematic LCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 49, 1863–1867 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

Jong Seok Chae and Soo Gil Moon, “Cell parameter measurement of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell by the spectroscopic method,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3250–3254 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tang and H. S. Kwok, “Transmissive liquid crystal cell parameters measurement by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 80–85 (2001)
[Crossref]

A. Lien and H. Takano, “Cell gap measurement of filled twisted nematic liquid crystal displays by a phase compensation method,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1304–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hiap Liew Ong, “Cell thickness and surface pretilt angle measurements of a planar liquid-crystal cell with obliquely incident light,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 140–144 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. H. Yang, “Measurements of empty cell gap for liquid-crystal displays using interferometry methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 64, 4780–4781 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yang and H. Takano, “Measurements of twisted nematic cell gap by spectral and split-beam interferometric methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 67, 5–9 (1990).
[Crossref]

Marenori Kawamura, Yoshiaki Goto, and Susumu Sato, “Two-dimensional measurements of cell parameter distributions in reflective liquid crystal displays by using multiple wavelengths Stokes parameters,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4371–4375 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (5)

Zhan He, Ying Zhou, and Susumu, “A two-dimensional Stokes parameter method for determination of cell thickness and twist angle distributions in twisted nematic liquid crystal devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1982–1988 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jin Seog Gwag, Kyoung-Ho Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Simple cell gap measurement method for twisted-nematic liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L30–L32 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seo Hern Lee, Won Sang Park, Gi-Dong Lee, Kwan-Young Han, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Low-cell-gap measurement by rotation of a wave retarder,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 379–383 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gi-Dong Lee, Tae-Hoon Yoon, and Jae Chang Kim, “Cell gap measurement method for single-polarizer reflective liquid crystal cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3330–3331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ru-Pin Pan, Shyang-Rong Liou, and Chao-Ken Lin, “Voltage-controlled optical fiber coupler using a layer of low-refractive-index liquid crystal with positive dielectric anisotropy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6410–6415 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

Shin-Tson Wu, Chiung-Sheng Wu, Marc Warenghem, and Mimoun Ismaili, “Refractive index disperasions of liquid crystals,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1775–1780 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yu-Ping Lan, Chao-Yuan Chen, Ru-Pin Pan, and Ci-Ling Pan, “Fine-tuning of a diode laser wavelength with a intracavity liquid crystal element,” Opt. Eng. 43, 234–238 (2004)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The schematic diagram for LC cell gap measurement. LD: laser diode; Obj: Objective, LC: liquid crystal, λ-meter: wavelength meter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Output wavelength of the laser and (b) transmittance of the LC cell (9.6 μm) through crossed polarizers as a function of the driving root-mean square (rms) voltage of the LC cell.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Output wavelength of the laser and (b) transmittance of the LC cell (4.25 μm) through crossed polarizers as a function of the driving root-mean-square (rms) voltage of the LC cell.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Results of LC layer thickness measurement

Tables Icon

Table 2. Error sources for LC layer thickness measurement by the present method

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n eff ( θ ) = [ sin 2 ( θ ) n e + cos 2 ( θ ) n o ] 1 2 ,
ΔΦ = k 0 d [ n eff ( z ) n 0 ] dz ,
Δ Φ max = 2 π λ ( n e n o ) d .
Δ l l = Δ λ λ ,
δd δ ( Δ λ ) Δ λ d .
δd = 1 Δ n δf f .
δd = δl d l .
δd = Δ λ λ δ ( Δ n ) ( Δ n ) 2 = d Δ n δ ( Δ n )
δd = d tan θ · δθ .

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