Abstract

Visible upconversion luminescence was observed in Cr3+: Al2O3 crystal under focused femtosecond laser irradiation. The luminescence spectra show that the upconversion luminescence originates from the 2E-4A2 transition of Cr3+. The dependence of the fluorescence intensity of Cr3+ on the pump power reveals that a two-photon absorption process dominates in the conversion of infrared radiation to the visible emission. It is suggested that the simultaneous absorption of two infrared photons produces the population of upper excited states, which leads to the characteristic visible emission from 2E state of Cr3+.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. L. F. Johnson, G. J. Guggenheim, �??Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44-47 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, �??Three-dimensional optical storage memory,�?? Science. 245, 843-845 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, �??A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,�?? Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb. �??Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope,�?? Science. 248, 73-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, �??The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Bloembergen. N, �??Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84-85 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F.E.Auzel, �??Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids,�?? Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 104, 139-174 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S.M.Jacobsen, and H. U. Güdel, �??Higher excited state luminescence in Ti2+:MgCl2 Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative processes,�?? J. Lumin. 43, 125-137 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U.Oetliker, M.J.Riley, P.S.May, and H. U. Güdel, �??Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,�?? J. Lumin. 53, 553-556 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, �??Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,�?? Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293-297 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R.Micheletti, P.Minguzzi, M.A.Noginov, and M. Tonelli, �??Upconversion luminescence of Er and Cr in YSGG laser crystals,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11 2095-2099 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, �??Two-Photon Spectroscopy of d3 Transition Metals: Near-IR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence by Re4+ and Mo3+,�?? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12 143-144 (1998).
  13. D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, �??Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Re4+ Near-IR-to-Visible Luminescence Upconversion,�?? Inorg. Chem. 38, 5154-64 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M.Wermuth and H. U. Güdel, �??Photon Avalanche in Cs2ZrBr6:Os4+,�?? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 10 102-111 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, �??Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,�?? Nature. 415, 767-770 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, �??Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Nat. Mater. 1, 217-224 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. You and M. Nogami, �??Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-78 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. You and M. Nogami, �??Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3�??SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432-34 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. H. Maiman, �??Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,�?? Nature. 187, 493 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, �??Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation,�?? Science 270, 776-778 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, Jr, �??Additive coloration of sapphire,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 273-275 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W.Kaiser, and C.G.B.Garrett, �??Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2: Eu2+,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229-231 (1961).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. F. Johnson, G. J. Guggenheim, �??Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44-47 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, �??The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. You and M. Nogami, �??Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. You and M. Nogami, �??Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3�??SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432-34 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, Jr, �??Additive coloration of sapphire,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 273-275 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, �??Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,�?? Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293-297 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)

F.E.Auzel, �??Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids,�?? Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 104, 139-174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inorg. Chem.

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, �??Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Re4+ Near-IR-to-Visible Luminescence Upconversion,�?? Inorg. Chem. 38, 5154-64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

M.Wermuth and H. U. Güdel, �??Photon Avalanche in Cs2ZrBr6:Os4+,�?? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 10 102-111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, �??Two-Photon Spectroscopy of d3 Transition Metals: Near-IR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence by Re4+ and Mo3+,�?? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12 143-144 (1998).

J. Lumin.

S.M.Jacobsen, and H. U. Güdel, �??Higher excited state luminescence in Ti2+:MgCl2 Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative processes,�?? J. Lumin. 43, 125-137 (1989).
[CrossRef]

U.Oetliker, M.J.Riley, P.S.May, and H. U. Güdel, �??Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,�?? J. Lumin. 53, 553-556 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Mater.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, �??Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Nat. Mater. 1, 217-224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, �??Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,�?? Nature. 415, 767-770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Maiman, �??Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,�?? Nature. 187, 493 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Bloembergen. N, �??Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84-85 (1959).
[CrossRef]

W.Kaiser, and C.G.B.Garrett, �??Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2: Eu2+,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229-231 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, �??Three-dimensional optical storage memory,�?? Science. 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, �??A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,�?? Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb. �??Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope,�?? Science. 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, �??Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation,�?? Science 270, 776-778 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Emission spectra of the crystal sample under femtosecond laser irradiation and 400nm light excitation

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Luminescent intensity of the 2E-4A2 transition of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal as function of the femtosecond second pump power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption spectra of the Cr3+: Al2O3 crystal and the Al2O3 crystal.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I P n

Metrics