Abstract

Visible upconversion luminescence was observed in Cr3+: Al2O3 crystal under focused femtosecond laser irradiation. The luminescence spectra show that the upconversion luminescence originates from the 2E-4A2 transition of Cr3+. The dependence of the fluorescence intensity of Cr3+ on the pump power reveals that a two-photon absorption process dominates in the conversion of infrared radiation to the visible emission. It is suggested that the simultaneous absorption of two infrared photons produces the population of upper excited states, which leads to the characteristic visible emission from 2E state of Cr3+.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science. 245, 843–845 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,” Science. 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb. “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope,” Science. 248, 73–76 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3+ -based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  6. N Bloembergen., “Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84–85 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  7. F.E. Auzel, “Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)  104, 139–174 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S.M. Jacobsen and H. U. Güdel, “Higher excited state luminescence in Ti2+:MgCl2 Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative processes,” J. Lumin. 43, 125–137 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. U. Oetliker, M.J. Riley, P.S. May, and H. U. Güdel, “Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,” J. Lumin. 53, 553–556 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293–297 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Micheletti, P. Minguzzi, M.A. Noginov, and M. Tonelli, “Upconversion luminescence of Er and Cr in YSGG laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 112095–2099 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Two-Photon Spectroscopy of d3 Transition Metals: Near-IR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence by Re4+ and Mo3+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12 143–144 (1998).
  13. D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Re4+ Near-IR-to-Visible Luminescence Upconversion,” Inorg. Chem. 38, 5154–64 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Wermuth and H. U. Güdel, “Photon Avalanche in Cs2ZrBr6:Os4+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 10 102–111 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature. 415, 767–770 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1, 217–224 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. You and M. Nogami, “Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076–78 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. You and M. Nogami, “Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432–34 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature. 187, 493 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, “Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation,” Science 270, 776–778 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, “Additive coloration of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 273–275 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett, “Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2: Eu2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).
    [Crossref]

2004 (3)

F.E. Auzel, “Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)  104, 139–174 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. You and M. Nogami, “Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. You and M. Nogami, “Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432–34 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature. 415, 767–770 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1, 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Re4+ Near-IR-to-Visible Luminescence Upconversion,” Inorg. Chem. 38, 5154–64 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Wermuth and H. U. Güdel, “Photon Avalanche in Cs2ZrBr6:Os4+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 10 102–111 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Two-Photon Spectroscopy of d3 Transition Metals: Near-IR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence by Re4+ and Mo3+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12 143–144 (1998).

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,” Science. 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, “Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation,” Science 270, 776–778 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Micheletti, P. Minguzzi, M.A. Noginov, and M. Tonelli, “Upconversion luminescence of Er and Cr in YSGG laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 112095–2099 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

U. Oetliker, M.J. Riley, P.S. May, and H. U. Güdel, “Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,” J. Lumin. 53, 553–556 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb. “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope,” Science. 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

S.M. Jacobsen and H. U. Güdel, “Higher excited state luminescence in Ti2+:MgCl2 Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative processes,” J. Lumin. 43, 125–137 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science. 245, 843–845 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3+ -based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, “Additive coloration of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 273–275 (1978).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett, “Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2: Eu2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature. 187, 493 (1960).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

N Bloembergen., “Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84–85 (1959).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F.E.

F.E. Auzel, “Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)  104, 139–174 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloembergen., N

N Bloembergen., “Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84–85 (1959).
[Crossref]

Case, W. E.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3+ -based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[Crossref]

Chin, R. P.

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, “Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation,” Science 270, 776–778 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chivian, J. S.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3+ -based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[Crossref]

Crawford, J. H.

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, “Additive coloration of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 273–275 (1978).
[Crossref]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb. “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope,” Science. 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,” Science. 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Eden, D. D.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3+ -based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[Crossref]

Gamelin, D. R.

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Re4+ Near-IR-to-Visible Luminescence Upconversion,” Inorg. Chem. 38, 5154–64 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Two-Photon Spectroscopy of d3 Transition Metals: Near-IR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence by Re4+ and Mo3+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12 143–144 (1998).

Garrett, C.G.B.

W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett, “Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2: Eu2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).
[Crossref]

Güdel, H. U.

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Re4+ Near-IR-to-Visible Luminescence Upconversion,” Inorg. Chem. 38, 5154–64 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Wermuth and H. U. Güdel, “Photon Avalanche in Cs2ZrBr6:Os4+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 10 102–111 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Two-Photon Spectroscopy of d3 Transition Metals: Near-IR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence by Re4+ and Mo3+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12 143–144 (1998).

U. Oetliker, M.J. Riley, P.S. May, and H. U. Güdel, “Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,” J. Lumin. 53, 553–556 (1992).
[Crossref]

S.M. Jacobsen and H. U. Güdel, “Higher excited state luminescence in Ti2+:MgCl2 Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative processes,” J. Lumin. 43, 125–137 (1989).
[Crossref]

Guggenheim, G. J.

L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
[Crossref]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature. 415, 767–770 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heer, S.

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,” Science. 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, S.M.

S.M. Jacobsen and H. U. Güdel, “Higher excited state luminescence in Ti2+:MgCl2 Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative processes,” J. Lumin. 43, 125–137 (1989).
[Crossref]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, W.

W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett, “Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2: Eu2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).
[Crossref]

Krämer, K.

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, “Additive coloration of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 273–275 (1978).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. C.

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature. 415, 767–770 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,” Science. 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature. 187, 493 (1960).
[Crossref]

Markowicz, P. P.

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature. 415, 767–770 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

May, P.S.

U. Oetliker, M.J. Riley, P.S. May, and H. U. Güdel, “Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,” J. Lumin. 53, 553–556 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1, 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

Micheletti, R.

R. Micheletti, P. Minguzzi, M.A. Noginov, and M. Tonelli, “Upconversion luminescence of Er and Cr in YSGG laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 112095–2099 (1994).
[Crossref]

Minguzzi, P.

R. Micheletti, P. Minguzzi, M.A. Noginov, and M. Tonelli, “Upconversion luminescence of Er and Cr in YSGG laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 112095–2099 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nogami, M.

H. You and M. Nogami, “Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. You and M. Nogami, “Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432–34 (2004).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M.A.

R. Micheletti, P. Minguzzi, M.A. Noginov, and M. Tonelli, “Upconversion luminescence of Er and Cr in YSGG laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 112095–2099 (1994).
[Crossref]

Oetliker, U.

U. Oetliker, M.J. Riley, P.S. May, and H. U. Güdel, “Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,” J. Lumin. 53, 553–556 (1992).
[Crossref]

Parthenopoulos, D. A.

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science. 245, 843–845 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrova-koch, V.

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, “Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation,” Science 270, 776–778 (1995).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature. 415, 767–770 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,” Science. 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rentzepis, P. M.

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science. 245, 843–845 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riley, M.J.

U. Oetliker, M.J. Riley, P.S. May, and H. U. Güdel, “Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,” J. Lumin. 53, 553–556 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, “Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation,” Science 270, 776–778 (1995).
[Crossref]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb. “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope,” Science. 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1, 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tonelli, M.

R. Micheletti, P. Minguzzi, M.A. Noginov, and M. Tonelli, “Upconversion luminescence of Er and Cr in YSGG laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 112095–2099 (1994).
[Crossref]

Webb., W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb. “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope,” Science. 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wermuth, M.

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Wermuth and H. U. Güdel, “Photon Avalanche in Cs2ZrBr6:Os4+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 10 102–111 (1999).
[Crossref]

You, H.

H. You and M. Nogami, “Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432–34 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. You and M. Nogami, “Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

L. F. Johnson and G. J. Guggenheim, “Infrared-Pumped Visible Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44–47 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, and D. D. Eden, “The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3+ -based infrared quantum counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124–125 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. You and M. Nogami, “Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. You and M. Nogami, “Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432–34 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee and J. H. Crawford, “Additive coloration of sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 273–275 (1978).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion excitation of Cr3+ 2E emission in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 334, 293–297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

F.E. Auzel, “Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d Ions in Solids,” Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.)  104, 139–174 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Re4+ Near-IR-to-Visible Luminescence Upconversion,” Inorg. Chem. 38, 5154–64 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

M. Wermuth and H. U. Güdel, “Photon Avalanche in Cs2ZrBr6:Os4+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 10 102–111 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. R. Gamelin and H. U. Güdel, “Two-Photon Spectroscopy of d3 Transition Metals: Near-IR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence by Re4+ and Mo3+,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12 143–144 (1998).

J. Lumin. (2)

S.M. Jacobsen and H. U. Güdel, “Higher excited state luminescence in Ti2+:MgCl2 Dynamics of radiative and nonradiative processes,” J. Lumin. 43, 125–137 (1989).
[Crossref]

U. Oetliker, M.J. Riley, P.S. May, and H. U. Güdel, “Excitation avalanche in Ni2+-doped CsCdCl3,” J. Lumin. 53, 553–556 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

R. Micheletti, P. Minguzzi, M.A. Noginov, and M. Tonelli, “Upconversion luminescence of Er and Cr in YSGG laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 112095–2099 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1, 217–224 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nature. (2)

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T. C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature. 415, 767–770 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature. 187, 493 (1960).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N Bloembergen., “Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84–85 (1959).
[Crossref]

W. Kaiser and C.G.B. Garrett, “Two-Photon Excitation in CaF2: Eu2+,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 229–231 (1961).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, “Photoluminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation,” Science 270, 776–778 (1995).
[Crossref]

Science. (3)

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science. 245, 843–845 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display,” Science. 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb. “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope,” Science. 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Emission spectra of the crystal sample under femtosecond laser irradiation and 400nm light excitation

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Luminescent intensity of the 2E-4A2 transition of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal as function of the femtosecond second pump power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption spectra of the Cr3+: Al2O3 crystal and the Al2O3 crystal.

Equations (1)

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I P n

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