Abstract

An analysis of several types of one-dimensional transmission gratings structures with different metal contact geometries is used to study the role of horizontally oriented surface plasmons, cavity modes and other optical modes in enhanced transmission. Several competing theories of enhanced transmission are presented and the analysis of the structures in this work clearly establishes that horizontal surface plasmons can enhance or inhibit transmission depending on whether the HSPs establish vortices of energy that circulate in a direction that enhances or inhibits the flow of energy through the center of the grooves. Also, we show that enhanced transmission can be achieved using a different mechanism than previously reported in the literature. This new mechanism is a Fabry-Perot resonance produced by small notches in the top metal surface, which concentrates the energy from the incident beam and steers it through the slit openings and into the substrate. Finally, applications of the different structures and their optical modes are discussed including chemical and biological sensors and high bandwidth, high responsivity InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Stephane Collin,Fabrice Pardo, and Jean-Luc Pelouard, �??Resonant-cavity-enhanced subwavelength metal�??semiconductor�??metal photodetector,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1521-1523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stéphane Collin,Fabrice Pardo,Roland Teissier,and Jean-Luc Pelouard, �?? Efficient light absorption in metal�??semiconductor�??metal nanostructures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 194-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electromagnetic Surface Modes

D. Maystre, �??General study of grating anomalies from electromagnetic surface modes,�?? in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Belfast, 1982), pp. 661-724.

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

D. Crouse, �??Numerical modeling of electromagnetic resonance modes in complex grating structures and optoelectronic device applications,�?? IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (to be published). <a href="http://ees2cy.engr.ccny.cuny.edu/wwwb/web/nano/newsite/publications/.">http://ees2cy.engr.ccny.cuny.edu/wwwb/web/nano/newsite/publications/.</a>

D. Crouse, Mark Arend, and William Charles, �??Enhancement of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors using Electromagnetic Resonance Modes,�?? IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (Under review). <a href="http://ees2cy.engr.ccny.cuny.edu/wwwb/web/nano/newsite/publications/.">http://ees2cy.engr.ccny.cuny.edu/wwwb/web/nano/newsite/publications/.</a>

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Y. Andersson and L. Lundqvist, �??Grating-coupled quantum-well infrared detectors: Theory and performance,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3600-3610 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J. Pelouard, "Horizontal and vertical surface resonances in transmission metallic gratings," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S154-S160 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phil. Mag.

R. W. Wood, �??On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,�?? Phil. Mag. 4, 396-408 (1902).

Phy. Rev. B.

A. Barbara, P. Quemerais, E. Bustarret, and T. Lopez-Rios, �??Optical transmission through subwavelength metallic gratings,�?? Phy. Rev. B. 66, 161403(1)- 161403(4) (2002)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal and L. Martin-Moreno, �??Transmission and focusing of light in one-dimensional periodically nanostrucutred metals,�?? Phys. Rev. B. 66, 155412 (1)- 155412 (10) (2002)
[CrossRef]

Treacy, M.M.J., �??Dynamical diffraction explanation of the anomalous transmission of light through metallic gratings,�?? Phys. Rev. B. 66, 195105-195116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, �??Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 - 2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qing Cao and Philippe Lalanne, �??Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403(1)- 057403(4) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

David R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, London, 1992-1993).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three electromagnetic resonance modes produced by a normal incident TM polarized plane wave for a Si lamellar grating structure with 0.96μm thick, 1.14μm wide Au contacts with a period of 1.75μm. Top: A 0.21eV contact/Si HSP, Middle: A 0.28eV CM, Bottom: A 0.69eV air/contact HSP.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Left: The reflectance and transmittance of the lamellar grating profile with a pitch of 3.5μm and Au contacts that are 3μm wide and decreasing thickness starting at 1.25μm and ending at 0.1μm. Right: The magnetic field intensity profile for the peak in transmission (identified by the green cross in the right-hand graph). [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The zero-order transmittance as a function of the energy and in-plane component of the wavevector (kx) of the incident beam. The behavior of the CMs, HSPs and hybrid CM/HSP modes and their effects on enhanced transmission are clearly illustrated. Media 2]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The four grating structures that will be analyzed in this work. S1 is the classical lamellar grating profile that has HSPs on the air/contact and substrate/contact interfaces. S2 will largely eliminate the HSPs on the substrate/contact interface, S3 will largely eliminate the HSPs on the air/contact interface, and S4 will eliminate both sets of HSPs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Left: The zero-order transmittance of the classical grating structure (S1) and the modified structure (S2). It is seen that the HSPs associated with the substrate/contact interface are largely absent in structure S2. Right: The zero-order transmittance of the classical grating structure (S1) and the modified structure (S3). It is seen that the HSPs associated with the air/contact interface are absent in structure S3.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Left: The Poynting vector showing that the 0.21eV Si/contact HSP causes the energy flow to form a vortex that is in a direction that inhibits energy flow through the groove. Right: The Poynting vector showing that the 0.62eV Si/contact HSP causes the energy flow to form a vortex that is in a direction that enhances energy flow through the groove.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reflectance of the grating structure for normal incidence and an index of refraction of 1.14. The CM mode at 1.05μm produces a sharp minimum in the reflectance. The inset shows the wavelength of the reflectance minimum as the index of refraction of the material in the groove changes from 1 to 1.25

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Right: The reflectance and total energy transmitted for the S1 structure showing a HSP/WR resonant pair at 0.93eV. Left: The HSP at 0.93eV is eliminated and subgroove CMs are produced that channel light through the main groove producing a high value of 93% for the total energy transmitted. The transmission peak at 0.84ev is large and broad making this device desirable for use as a MSM-PD.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Top: The magnetic field profile for a TM polarized, 0.84eV normal incidence plane wave. The geometry of the subgrooves create CM modes that concentrates the energy of the incident beam within the subgrooves. Bottom: The Poynting vector shows that energy is being channeled from the subgroove CMs to and through the main groove.

Metrics