Abstract

We propose an optical initial phase control technique for external modulation in the format of minimum-shift keying (MSK). In this scheme, the optical phase discontinuities inherent to external frequency-shift-keying (FSK) modulation are compensated by use of an initial phase controller in conjunction with a FSK modulator. We present the principle of the control method and then numerically and experimentally prove that the signal has a modulation spectrum more compact than that of conventional binary phase-shift keying. 10-Gbit/s external modulation in MSK format was experimentally demonstrated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz , “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99–101 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65 (Bit/s)/Hz,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’03) (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th4.3.2.
  3. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, and M. Izutsu, “Novel modulation scheme for optical continuous-phase frequency-shift keying,” in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’05) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), paper OFG2.
  4. T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.
  5. K. Iwashita and T. Matsumoto“Modulation and detection characteristics of optical continuous phase FSK transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT- 5 , 452–460 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Wedding, et al., “10.7 Gbit/s FSK transmission with 61 dB power budget,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th1.5.5.

2003 (1)

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz , “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

K. Iwashita and T. Matsumoto“Modulation and detection characteristics of optical continuous phase FSK transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT- 5 , 452–460 (1987).
[Crossref]

Becouarn, L.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65 (Bit/s)/Hz,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’03) (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th4.3.2.

Chandrasekhar, S.

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz , “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fujita, T.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz , “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Higuma, K.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.

Ichikawa, J.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.

Iwashita, K.

K. Iwashita and T. Matsumoto“Modulation and detection characteristics of optical continuous phase FSK transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT- 5 , 452–460 (1987).
[Crossref]

Izutsu, M.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, and M. Izutsu, “Novel modulation scheme for optical continuous-phase frequency-shift keying,” in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’05) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), paper OFG2.

Kawanishi, T.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, and M. Izutsu, “Novel modulation scheme for optical continuous-phase frequency-shift keying,” in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’05) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), paper OFG2.

Leuthold, J.

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz , “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marcerou, J. F.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65 (Bit/s)/Hz,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’03) (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th4.3.2.

Matsumoto, T.

K. Iwashita and T. Matsumoto“Modulation and detection characteristics of optical continuous phase FSK transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT- 5 , 452–460 (1987).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, and M. Izutsu, “Novel modulation scheme for optical continuous-phase frequency-shift keying,” in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’05) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), paper OFG2.

Pecci, P.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65 (Bit/s)/Hz,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’03) (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th4.3.2.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, and M. Izutsu, “Novel modulation scheme for optical continuous-phase frequency-shift keying,” in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’05) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), paper OFG2.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.

Shinada, S.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.

Stulz, L.

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz , “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vareille, G.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65 (Bit/s)/Hz,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’03) (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th4.3.2.

Wedding, B.

B. Wedding, et al., “10.7 Gbit/s FSK transmission with 61 dB power budget,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th1.5.5.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz , “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Iwashita and T. Matsumoto“Modulation and detection characteristics of optical continuous phase FSK transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT- 5 , 452–460 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

B. Wedding, et al., “10.7 Gbit/s FSK transmission with 61 dB power budget,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th1.5.5.

L. Becouarn, G. Vareille, P. Pecci, and J. F. Marcerou, “3Tbit/s transmission (301 DPSK channels at 10.709Gb/s) over 10270km with a record efficiency of 0.65 (Bit/s)/Hz,” in 29th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’03) (The IEE, United Kingdom, 2003), paper Th4.3.2.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, T. Miyazaki, and M. Izutsu, “Novel modulation scheme for optical continuous-phase frequency-shift keying,” in Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’05) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), paper OFG2.

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, T. Fujita, and J. Ichikawa, “High-speed optical FSK modulator for optical packet labeling” Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’04), Los Angels, Calfornia, PDP16, 2004.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept of the initial phase control technique for optical MSK modulation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated modulation spectra: (a) optical phase is discontinued, (b) optical phase is continuous at the timing of frequency shift. f 0 = 2.5 GHz, B = 10 Gbit/s. (b) corresponds to the case for the optical MSK format. The phase trajectory calculated at the MSK condition is shown in (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental setup for external modulation in MSK format using the initial phase control; (b) an external FSK modulator. LD: laser diode, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured optical spectra for 10 Gbit/s MSK and BPSK signals; solid: MSK, dotted: BPSK.

Equations (5)

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θ USB = π 2 + 2 π f 0 t
θ LSB = 2 π f 0 t ,
θ USB = θ LSB = m π + π 4 ,
Δ θ k = 4 k π f 0 B + Δ θ 0 Δ ϕ k
Δ ϕ k = { π ( A k + A k 1 ) ( mod 2 π ) for k = odd 0 for k = even

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