Abstract

A fast phase modulator based on ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) is demonstrated and its performances characterized. For uniform alignment and pure phase modulation, we propose a new FLC device configuration using short helical pitch material and homeotropic alignment structure. This device is driven by periodic in-plane electrode stripes implemented on the surface of both cell substrates. As a result, we have obtained large phase modulation (> 2π at λ=1.55 μm) and fast response (< 200 μsec).

©2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y.-H. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, X. Nie, J. H. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Axially-symmetric sheared polymer network liquid crystals,” Opt. Express,  13, 4638–4644 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4638
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141110 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, (Wiley, New York, 2001).
  4. G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Lagerwall, A. Saipa, F. Geisselmann, and R. Dabrowski, “On the origin of high optical director tilt in a partially fluorinated orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 1175–1184 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. KellerJ. Phys. Lett. 36, L69-71 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  7. I.-C. Khoo and S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
  8. C. Wang, P. J. Bos, M. Wand, and M. Handschy, “A defect free bistable C1 SSFLC display,” Soc. Inform. Display Tech. Digest,,  33, 34–37 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. S. Patel, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal modulator using twisted smectic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 280–282 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. A. Beresnev, L. M. Blinov, and D. I. Dergachev, “Electro-optical response of a thin layer of a ferroelectric liquid crystal with a small pitch and high spontaneous polarization,” Ferroelectrics,  85, 173–186 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. S. Seomun, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, A. Fukuda, and J. M. Otón, “Dependence of the molecular orientational states on the surface conditions for the V-shape switching in ferroelectric-like samples”, Phys. Rev. E 64, 040701(R) (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. J.-H. Lee, C.-J. Yu, D.-H. You, and S.-D. Lee, “Wide-viewing display configuration of helix-deformed ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. Int’l Display Workshop, 129–132 (1999).
  17. D.-H. You, S.-D. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and D. J. Na, “A dual in-plane electrode structure for better brightness in a helix-deformed FLCD,” J. SID,  2, 1–4 (2001).
  18. S. J. Singer, “Layer buckling in smectic A liquid crystals and two-dimensional stripe phases,” Phys. Rev. E,  48, 2796–2804 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. E. Geer, S. J. Singer, J. V. Selinger, B. R. Ratna, and R. Shashidhar, “Electric-field-induced layer buckling in chiral smectic-A liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 57, 3059–3062 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y.-H. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, X. Nie, J. H. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Axially-symmetric sheared polymer network liquid crystals,” Opt. Express,  13, 4638–4644 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4638
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Lagerwall, A. Saipa, F. Geisselmann, and R. Dabrowski, “On the origin of high optical director tilt in a partially fluorinated orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 1175–1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Wang, P. J. Bos, M. Wand, and M. Handschy, “A defect free bistable C1 SSFLC display,” Soc. Inform. Display Tech. Digest,,  33, 34–37 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. S. Seomun, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, A. Fukuda, and J. M. Otón, “Dependence of the molecular orientational states on the surface conditions for the V-shape switching in ferroelectric-like samples”, Phys. Rev. E 64, 040701(R) (2001).
[Crossref]

D.-H. You, S.-D. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and D. J. Na, “A dual in-plane electrode structure for better brightness in a helix-deformed FLCD,” J. SID,  2, 1–4 (2001).

1999 (2)

J.-H. Lee, C.-J. Yu, D.-H. You, and S.-D. Lee, “Wide-viewing display configuration of helix-deformed ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. Int’l Display Workshop, 129–132 (1999).

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. E. Geer, S. J. Singer, J. V. Selinger, B. R. Ratna, and R. Shashidhar, “Electric-field-induced layer buckling in chiral smectic-A liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 57, 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. J. Singer, “Layer buckling in smectic A liquid crystals and two-dimensional stripe phases,” Phys. Rev. E,  48, 2796–2804 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. S. Patel, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal modulator using twisted smectic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 280–282 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

L. A. Beresnev, L. M. Blinov, and D. I. Dergachev, “Electro-optical response of a thin layer of a ferroelectric liquid crystal with a small pitch and high spontaneous polarization,” Ferroelectrics,  85, 173–186 (1988).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. KellerJ. Phys. Lett. 36, L69-71 (1975).
[Crossref]

Bardon, S.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bellini, T.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Beresnev, L. A.

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
[Crossref]

L. A. Beresnev, L. M. Blinov, and D. I. Dergachev, “Electro-optical response of a thin layer of a ferroelectric liquid crystal with a small pitch and high spontaneous polarization,” Ferroelectrics,  85, 173–186 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bhandari, R.

G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
[Crossref]

Blinov, L. M.

L. A. Beresnev, L. M. Blinov, and D. I. Dergachev, “Electro-optical response of a thin layer of a ferroelectric liquid crystal with a small pitch and high spontaneous polarization,” Ferroelectrics,  85, 173–186 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

C. Wang, P. J. Bos, M. Wand, and M. Handschy, “A defect free bistable C1 SSFLC display,” Soc. Inform. Display Tech. Digest,,  33, 34–37 (2002).
[Crossref]

Buivydas, M.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chandani, A. D. L.

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.-H.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V. G.

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
[Crossref]

Clark, N. A.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Coleman, D. A.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dabrowski, R.

J. Lagerwall, A. Saipa, F. Geisselmann, and R. Dabrowski, “On the origin of high optical director tilt in a partially fluorinated orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 1175–1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dergachev, D. I.

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
[Crossref]

L. A. Beresnev, L. M. Blinov, and D. I. Dergachev, “Electro-optical response of a thin layer of a ferroelectric liquid crystal with a small pitch and high spontaneous polarization,” Ferroelectrics,  85, 173–186 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, A.

S. S. Seomun, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, A. Fukuda, and J. M. Otón, “Dependence of the molecular orientational states on the surface conditions for the V-shape switching in ferroelectric-like samples”, Phys. Rev. E 64, 040701(R) (2001).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Funfschilling, J.

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
[Crossref]

Geer, R. E.

R. E. Geer, S. J. Singer, J. V. Selinger, B. R. Ratna, and R. Shashidhar, “Electric-field-induced layer buckling in chiral smectic-A liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 57, 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

Geisselmann, F.

J. Lagerwall, A. Saipa, F. Geisselmann, and R. Dabrowski, “On the origin of high optical director tilt in a partially fluorinated orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 1175–1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Glaser, M. A.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gouda, F.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Handschy, M.

C. Wang, P. J. Bos, M. Wand, and M. Handschy, “A defect free bistable C1 SSFLC display,” Soc. Inform. Display Tech. Digest,,  33, 34–37 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hermann, D. S.

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, Ken

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keller, P.

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. KellerJ. Phys. Lett. 36, L69-71 (1975).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I.-C.

I.-C. Khoo and S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

Lagerwall, J.

J. Lagerwall, A. Saipa, F. Geisselmann, and R. Dabrowski, “On the origin of high optical director tilt in a partially fluorinated orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 1175–1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lagerwall, J. P. F.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lagerwall, S. T.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J.-H.

D.-H. You, S.-D. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and D. J. Na, “A dual in-plane electrode structure for better brightness in a helix-deformed FLCD,” J. SID,  2, 1–4 (2001).

J.-H. Lee, C.-J. Yu, D.-H. You, and S.-D. Lee, “Wide-viewing display configuration of helix-deformed ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. Int’l Display Workshop, 129–132 (1999).

Lee, S.-D.

D.-H. You, S.-D. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and D. J. Na, “A dual in-plane electrode structure for better brightness in a helix-deformed FLCD,” J. SID,  2, 1–4 (2001).

J.-H. Lee, C.-J. Yu, D.-H. You, and S.-D. Lee, “Wide-viewing display configuration of helix-deformed ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. Int’l Display Workshop, 129–132 (1999).

Liebert, L.

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. KellerJ. Phys. Lett. 36, L69-71 (1975).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-H.

Link, D. R.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Love, G. D.

G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
[Crossref]

Maclennan, J. E.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meyer, R. B.

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. KellerJ. Phys. Lett. 36, L69-71 (1975).
[Crossref]

Na, D. J.

D.-H. You, S.-D. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and D. J. Na, “A dual in-plane electrode structure for better brightness in a helix-deformed FLCD,” J. SID,  2, 1–4 (2001).

Natale, G.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nie, X.

Otón, J. M.

S. S. Seomun, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, A. Fukuda, and J. M. Otón, “Dependence of the molecular orientational states on the surface conditions for the V-shape switching in ferroelectric-like samples”, Phys. Rev. E 64, 040701(R) (2001).
[Crossref]

Panov, V. P.

S. S. Seomun, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, A. Fukuda, and J. M. Otón, “Dependence of the molecular orientational states on the surface conditions for the V-shape switching in ferroelectric-like samples”, Phys. Rev. E 64, 040701(R) (2001).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Patel, J. S.

J. S. Patel, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal modulator using twisted smectic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 280–282 (1992).
[Crossref]

Poshidaev, E. P.

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ratna, B. R.

R. E. Geer, S. J. Singer, J. V. Selinger, B. R. Ratna, and R. Shashidhar, “Electric-field-induced layer buckling in chiral smectic-A liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 57, 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Y.-H. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, X. Nie, J. H. Lee, and S.-T. Wu, “Axially-symmetric sheared polymer network liquid crystals,” Opt. Express,  13, 4638–4644 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4638
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rudquist, P.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Saipa, A.

J. Lagerwall, A. Saipa, F. Geisselmann, and R. Dabrowski, “On the origin of high optical director tilt in a partially fluorinated orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 1175–1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
[Crossref]

Selinger, J. V.

R. E. Geer, S. J. Singer, J. V. Selinger, B. R. Ratna, and R. Shashidhar, “Electric-field-induced layer buckling in chiral smectic-A liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 57, 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

Seomun, S. S.

S. S. Seomun, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, A. Fukuda, and J. M. Otón, “Dependence of the molecular orientational states on the surface conditions for the V-shape switching in ferroelectric-like samples”, Phys. Rev. E 64, 040701(R) (2001).
[Crossref]

Seomun, S.-S.

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shao, R.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shashidhar, R.

R. E. Geer, S. J. Singer, J. V. Selinger, B. R. Ratna, and R. Shashidhar, “Electric-field-induced layer buckling in chiral smectic-A liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 57, 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

Singer, S. J.

R. E. Geer, S. J. Singer, J. V. Selinger, B. R. Ratna, and R. Shashidhar, “Electric-field-induced layer buckling in chiral smectic-A liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 57, 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. J. Singer, “Layer buckling in smectic A liquid crystals and two-dimensional stripe phases,” Phys. Rev. E,  48, 2796–2804 (1993).
[Crossref]

Strzelecki, L.

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. KellerJ. Phys. Lett. 36, L69-71 (1975).
[Crossref]

Takanishi, Y.

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vij, J. K.

S. S. Seomun, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, A. Fukuda, and J. M. Otón, “Dependence of the molecular orientational states on the surface conditions for the V-shape switching in ferroelectric-like samples”, Phys. Rev. E 64, 040701(R) (2001).
[Crossref]

Walba, D. M.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wand, M.

C. Wang, P. J. Bos, M. Wand, and M. Handschy, “A defect free bistable C1 SSFLC display,” Soc. Inform. Display Tech. Digest,,  33, 34–37 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wand, M. D.

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, P. J. Bos, M. Wand, and M. Handschy, “A defect free bistable C1 SSFLC display,” Soc. Inform. Display Tech. Digest,,  33, 34–37 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Wu, S.-T.

Wu, Y.-H.

Yang, D. K.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, (Wiley, New York, 2001).

You, D.-H.

D.-H. You, S.-D. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and D. J. Na, “A dual in-plane electrode structure for better brightness in a helix-deformed FLCD,” J. SID,  2, 1–4 (2001).

J.-H. Lee, C.-J. Yu, D.-H. You, and S.-D. Lee, “Wide-viewing display configuration of helix-deformed ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. Int’l Display Workshop, 129–132 (1999).

Yu, C.-J.

J.-H. Lee, C.-J. Yu, D.-H. You, and S.-D. Lee, “Wide-viewing display configuration of helix-deformed ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. Int’l Display Workshop, 129–132 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, “Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899–901 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. S. Patel, “Ferroelectric liquid crystal modulator using twisted smectic structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 280–282 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (1)

L. A. Beresnev, L. M. Blinov, and D. I. Dergachev, “Electro-optical response of a thin layer of a ferroelectric liquid crystal with a small pitch and high spontaneous polarization,” Ferroelectrics,  85, 173–186 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

P. Rudquist, J. P. F. Lagerwall, M. Buivydas, F. Gouda, S. T. Lagerwall, N. A. Clark, J. E. Maclennan, R. Shao, D. A. Coleman, S. Bardon, T. Bellini, D. R. Link, G. Natale, M. A. Glaser, D. M. Walba, M. D. Wand, and X.-H. Chen, “The case of thresholdless antiferroelectricity: polarization-stabilized twisted SmC* liquid crystals give V-shaped electro-optic response,” J. Mater. Chem.,  6, 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. KellerJ. Phys. Lett. 36, L69-71 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. SID (1)

D.-H. You, S.-D. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and D. J. Na, “A dual in-plane electrode structure for better brightness in a helix-deformed FLCD,” J. SID,  2, 1–4 (2001).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-S. Seomun, B. Park, A. D. L. Chandani, D. S. Hermann, Y. Takanishi, Ken Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Langevin Type Alignment in a Smectic Liquid Crystal Mixture Showing V-Shaped Switching As Studied by Optical Second-Harmonic Generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L691– L693 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (2)

L. A. Beresnev, V. G. Chigrinov, D. I. Dergachev, E. P. Poshidaev, J. Funfschilling, and M. Schadt, “Deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal displays: a new electrooptical mode in ferroelectric chiral smectic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 5, 1171–1177 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Lagerwall, A. Saipa, F. Geisselmann, and R. Dabrowski, “On the origin of high optical director tilt in a partially fluorinated orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture,” Liq. Cryst. 31, 1175–1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Comm. (1)

G. D. Love and R. Bhandari, “Optical properties of a QHQ ferroelectric liquid crystal phase modulator,” Opt. Comm. 110, 475–478 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E (2)

S. S. Seomun, V. P. Panov, J. K. Vij, A. Fukuda, and J. M. Otón, “Dependence of the molecular orientational states on the surface conditions for the V-shape switching in ferroelectric-like samples”, Phys. Rev. E 64, 040701(R) (2001).
[Crossref]

S. J. Singer, “Layer buckling in smectic A liquid crystals and two-dimensional stripe phases,” Phys. Rev. E,  48, 2796–2804 (1993).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E. (1)

R. E. Geer, S. J. Singer, J. V. Selinger, B. R. Ratna, and R. Shashidhar, “Electric-field-induced layer buckling in chiral smectic-A liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E. 57, 3059–3062 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. Int’l Display Workshop (1)

J.-H. Lee, C.-J. Yu, D.-H. You, and S.-D. Lee, “Wide-viewing display configuration of helix-deformed ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Proc. Int’l Display Workshop, 129–132 (1999).

Soc. Inform. Display Tech. Digest, (1)

C. Wang, P. J. Bos, M. Wand, and M. Handschy, “A defect free bistable C1 SSFLC display,” Soc. Inform. Display Tech. Digest,,  33, 34–37 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

I.-C. Khoo and S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals, (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays, (Wiley, New York, 2001).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Device structure for the phase modulator based on vertically aligned short-pitch FLC.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Results of the electrostatic simulation for the suggested device configuration: distribution of (a) the electric potential, the electric field (b) parallel to the cell substrate, and (c) normal to the substrate.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Vertically aligned texture of short-pitch FLC observed by a polarizing microscope under (a) parallel and (b) crossed polarizer condition.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Alignment texture variation according to the applied voltage change: (a) Vp=80, (b) 100, (c) 120, (d) 140, (e) 160, and (f) 200 volts, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Alignment breaking phenomenon occurs near the edge of the operating region. Photos are taken under (a) crossed and (b) parallel polarizer condition of a polarizing microscope.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Voltage dependent transmittance curve for the 50 μm thick sample driven by 60 Hz ac square field. Wavelength of the probe beam is λ=1.55μm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measured dynamic response of the vertically aligned short-pitch FLC sample. d=50μm and λ=633nm
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Texture on the operating region of the vertically aligned FLC mode with single side in-plane electrode configuration driven by (a) 80 V, (b) 120 V, and (c) 200 V, respectively. Texture is observed by a polarizing microscope under crossed polarizer condition.

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