Abstract

A symmetrical digital photonic splitting switch with a low insertion loss and a low driving voltage is developed using carrier injection in a silicon-germanium material for optical communication systems and networks at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. The switch structure has been improved based on a traditional 1×2 Y-shaped configuration by using two widened carrier injection regions. The switch has a threshold voltage of 1.0 V and a corresponding threshold current of 85 mA on one of the two output waveguide arms. The calculated driving current density is 5.7 kA/cm2 and the calculated power consumption is 85 mW at the 85 mA of threshold current. The measured insertion loss and the crosstalk are 5.2 dB and -9.6 dB, respectively, at driving voltage over 2 V.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Okayama, T. Ushikubo, and M. Kawahara, “Low drive voltage y-branch digital optical switch,” Electron. Lett. 27, 24–26 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  2. U. Siebel, R. Hauffe, and K. Petermann, “Crosstalk-enhanced polymer digital optical switch based on a W-shape” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 40–41 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  3. J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. N. Khan, B. I. Miller, E. C. Burrows, and C. A. Burrus, “Crosstalk-, loss-, and length-reduced digital optical Y-branch switches using a double-etch waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1250–1252 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. Sneh, J. E. Zucker, and B. I. Miller, “Compact, low-crosstalk, and low-propagation-loss quantum-well y-branch switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1644–1646 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won, and W. Y. Hwang, “Very low crosstalk 1×2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators,” Electron. Lett. 37, 587–588 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Okayama and M. Kawahara, “Reduction of voltage-length product for y-branch digital optical switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 379–387 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. J. Li and S. J. Chua, “High carrier injection optical switch based on two-mode interference in SiGe alloy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 180–182 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li, and J. S. Luo, “Silicon 1×2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 30, 130–131 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Keil, H. H. Yao, and C. Zawadzki, “2×2 digital optical switch realized by low cost polymer waveguide technology,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1470–1471 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, and T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2×2 thermo-optic digital switch using silicon resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. S. Normandin, “All-optical, silicon-based, fiber optic modulator using a near cutoff region,” Can. J. Phys. 67, 412–418, (1989).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

2004 (2)

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. J. Li and S. J. Chua, “High carrier injection optical switch based on two-mode interference in SiGe alloy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 180–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won, and W. Y. Hwang, “Very low crosstalk 1×2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators,” Electron. Lett. 37, 587–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

U. Siebel, R. Hauffe, and K. Petermann, “Crosstalk-enhanced polymer digital optical switch based on a W-shape” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 40–41 (2000)
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, and T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2×2 thermo-optic digital switch using silicon resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. N. Khan, B. I. Miller, E. C. Burrows, and C. A. Burrus, “Crosstalk-, loss-, and length-reduced digital optical Y-branch switches using a double-etch waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1250–1252 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

Sneh, J. E. Zucker, and B. I. Miller, “Compact, low-crosstalk, and low-propagation-loss quantum-well y-branch switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1644–1646 (1996).
[Crossref]

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, and C. Zawadzki, “2×2 digital optical switch realized by low cost polymer waveguide technology,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1470–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li, and J. S. Luo, “Silicon 1×2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 30, 130–131 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Okayama and M. Kawahara, “Reduction of voltage-length product for y-branch digital optical switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 379–387 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

H. Okayama, T. Ushikubo, and M. Kawahara, “Low drive voltage y-branch digital optical switch,” Electron. Lett. 27, 24–26 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. S. Normandin, “All-optical, silicon-based, fiber optic modulator using a near cutoff region,” Can. J. Phys. 67, 412–418, (1989).
[Crossref]

Abdalla, S.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

Barrios, P.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burrows, E. C.

M. N. Khan, B. I. Miller, E. C. Burrows, and C. A. Burrus, “Crosstalk-, loss-, and length-reduced digital optical Y-branch switches using a double-etch waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1250–1252 (1999).
[Crossref]

Burrus, C. A.

M. N. Khan, B. I. Miller, E. C. Burrows, and C. A. Burrus, “Crosstalk-, loss-, and length-reduced digital optical Y-branch switches using a double-etch waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1250–1252 (1999).
[Crossref]

Celo, D.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chaudhari, B. S.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. J. Li and S. J. Chua, “High carrier injection optical switch based on two-mode interference in SiGe alloy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 180–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Day, I. E.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

Delâge, A.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Do, J. Y.

M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
[Crossref]

El-Mougy, S.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Erman, M.

J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

George, D.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

Golub, I.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Goutelle, A.

J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hauffe, R.

U. Siebel, R. Hauffe, and K. Petermann, “Crosstalk-enhanced polymer digital optical switch based on a W-shape” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 40–41 (2000)
[Crossref]

He, J.-J.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hopper, G. F.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

Houghton, D. C.

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. S. Normandin, “All-optical, silicon-based, fiber optic modulator using a near cutoff region,” Can. J. Phys. 67, 412–418, (1989).
[Crossref]

House, A. A.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

Hwang, W. Y.

M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won, and W. Y. Hwang, “Very low crosstalk 1×2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators,” Electron. Lett. 37, 587–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ju, J. J.

M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
[Crossref]

Katoh, Y.

S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, and T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2×2 thermo-optic digital switch using silicon resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kawahara, M.

H. Okayama and M. Kawahara, “Reduction of voltage-length product for y-branch digital optical switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 379–387 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Okayama, T. Ushikubo, and M. Kawahara, “Low drive voltage y-branch digital optical switch,” Electron. Lett. 27, 24–26 (1991).
[Crossref]

Keil, N.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, and C. Zawadzki, “2×2 digital optical switch realized by low cost polymer waveguide technology,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1470–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. N.

M. N. Khan, B. I. Miller, E. C. Burrows, and C. A. Burrus, “Crosstalk-, loss-, and length-reduced digital optical Y-branch switches using a double-etch waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1250–1252 (1999).
[Crossref]

Knights, A. P.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

Kurihara, T.

S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, and T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2×2 thermo-optic digital switch using silicon resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. H.

M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, B. J.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. J. Li and S. J. Chua, “High carrier injection optical switch based on two-mode interference in SiGe alloy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 180–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, G. Z.

Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li, and J. S. Luo, “Silicon 1×2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 30, 130–131 (1994).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, X. B.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, E. K.

Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li, and J. S. Luo, “Silicon 1×2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 30, 130–131 (1994).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. L.

Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li, and J. S. Luo, “Silicon 1×2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 30, 130–131 (1994).
[Crossref]

Luo, J. S.

Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li, and J. S. Luo, “Silicon 1×2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 30, 130–131 (1994).
[Crossref]

Maruno, T.

S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, and T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2×2 thermo-optic digital switch using silicon resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000).
[Crossref]

McKinnon, R.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miao, L. Y.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miller, B. I.

M. N. Khan, B. I. Miller, E. C. Burrows, and C. A. Burrus, “Crosstalk-, loss-, and length-reduced digital optical Y-branch switches using a double-etch waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1250–1252 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sneh, J. E. Zucker, and B. I. Miller, “Compact, low-crosstalk, and low-propagation-loss quantum-well y-branch switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1644–1646 (1996).
[Crossref]

Min, Y. H.

M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ng, S.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Noh, Y. O.

M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won, and W. Y. Hwang, “Very low crosstalk 1×2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators,” Electron. Lett. 37, 587–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

Normandin, M. S.

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. S. Normandin, “All-optical, silicon-based, fiber optic modulator using a near cutoff region,” Can. J. Phys. 67, 412–418, (1989).
[Crossref]

Normandin, R.

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. S. Normandin, “All-optical, silicon-based, fiber optic modulator using a near cutoff region,” Can. J. Phys. 67, 412–418, (1989).
[Crossref]

Okayama, H.

H. Okayama and M. Kawahara, “Reduction of voltage-length product for y-branch digital optical switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 379–387 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Okayama, T. Ushikubo, and M. Kawahara, “Low drive voltage y-branch digital optical switch,” Electron. Lett. 27, 24–26 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ooba, N.

S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, and T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2×2 thermo-optic digital switch using silicon resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000).
[Crossref]

Park, S

M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, S. K.

M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

U. Siebel, R. Hauffe, and K. Petermann, “Crosstalk-enhanced polymer digital optical switch based on a W-shape” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 40–41 (2000)
[Crossref]

Poole, P.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Raymond, S.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Renaud, M.

J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
[Crossref]

Siebel, U.

U. Siebel, R. Hauffe, and K. Petermann, “Crosstalk-enhanced polymer digital optical switch based on a W-shape” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 40–41 (2000)
[Crossref]

Smy, T. J.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sneh,

Sneh, J. E. Zucker, and B. I. Miller, “Compact, low-crosstalk, and low-propagation-loss quantum-well y-branch switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1644–1646 (1996).
[Crossref]

Svensson, P.

J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
[Crossref]

Syrett, B.

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thylen, L.

J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, S.

S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, and T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2×2 thermo-optic digital switch using silicon resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ushikubo, T.

H. Okayama, T. Ushikubo, and M. Kawahara, “Low drive voltage y-branch digital optical switch,” Electron. Lett. 27, 24–26 (1991).
[Crossref]

Vinchant, J. F.

J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
[Crossref]

Vonsovici, A.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

Whiteman, R. R.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

Won, Y. H.

M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won, and W. Y. Hwang, “Very low crosstalk 1×2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators,” Electron. Lett. 37, 587–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, M. S.

M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won, and W. Y. Hwang, “Very low crosstalk 1×2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators,” Electron. Lett. 37, 587–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yao, H. H.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, and C. Zawadzki, “2×2 digital optical switch realized by low cost polymer waveguide technology,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1470–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zawadzki, C.

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, and C. Zawadzki, “2×2 digital optical switch realized by low cost polymer waveguide technology,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1470–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. L.

Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li, and J. S. Luo, “Silicon 1×2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 30, 130–131 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. Z.

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zucker, J. E.

Sneh, J. E. Zucker, and B. I. Miller, “Compact, low-crosstalk, and low-propagation-loss quantum-well y-branch switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1644–1646 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. J. Li and S. J. Chua, “High carrier injection optical switch based on two-mode interference in SiGe alloy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 180–182 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. J. Li, J. Li, Y. Z. Zhao, X. B. Lin, S. J. Chua, L. Y. Miao, E. A. Fitzgerald, M. L. Lee, and B. S. Chaudhari, “Ultracompact, multifunctional, and highly integrated 3×2 photonic switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2241–2243 (2004).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

R. Normandin, D. C. Houghton, and M. S. Normandin, “All-optical, silicon-based, fiber optic modulator using a near cutoff region,” Can. J. Phys. 67, 412–418, (1989).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (6)

Y. L. Liu, E. K. Liu, S. L. Zhang, G. Z. Li, and J. S. Luo, “Silicon 1×2 digital optical switch using plasma dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 30, 130–131 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, and C. Zawadzki, “2×2 digital optical switch realized by low cost polymer waveguide technology,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1470–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, Y. Katoh, T. Kurihara, and T. Maruno, “Low crosstalk and low loss 2×2 thermo-optic digital switch using silicon resin waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1803–1804 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. F. Vinchant, M. Renaud, A. Goutelle, M. Erman, P. Svensson, and L. Thylen, “Low driving voltage or current digital optical switch on InP for multiwavelength system applications,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1135–1137 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Okayama, T. Ushikubo, and M. Kawahara, “Low drive voltage y-branch digital optical switch,” Electron. Lett. 27, 24–26 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. S. Yang, Y. O. Noh, Y. H. Won, and W. Y. Hwang, “Very low crosstalk 1×2 digital optical switch integrated with variable optical attenuators,” Electron. Lett. 37, 587–588 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

U. Siebel, R. Hauffe, and K. Petermann, “Crosstalk-enhanced polymer digital optical switch based on a W-shape” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 40–41 (2000)
[Crossref]

M. N. Khan, B. I. Miller, E. C. Burrows, and C. A. Burrus, “Crosstalk-, loss-, and length-reduced digital optical Y-branch switches using a double-etch waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1250–1252 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Abdalla, S. Ng, P. Barrios, D. Celo, A. Delâge, S. El-Mougy, I. Golub, J.-J. He, S. Janz, R. McKinnon, P. Poole, S. Raymond, T. J. Smy, and B. Syrett, “Carrier injection-based digital optical switch with reconfigurable output waveguide arms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1038–100 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sneh, J. E. Zucker, and B. I. Miller, “Compact, low-crosstalk, and low-propagation-loss quantum-well y-branch switches,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1644–1646 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. H. Lee, Y. H. Min, S Park, J. J. Ju, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, “Fully packaged polymeric four arrayed 2×2 digital optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 615–617 (2002).
[Crossref]

in Photonics Packaging and Integration III (1)

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper, and M. Asghari, “Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs,” in Photonics Packaging and Integration III, R. A. Heyler, D. J. Robbins, and G. E. Jabbour, eds., Proc. SPIE 4997, 146–156 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. Okayama and M. Kawahara, “Reduction of voltage-length product for y-branch digital optical switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 379–387 (1993).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Schematic diagram of a symmetrical waveguide Y-branch digital photonic splitting switch (a) top view and (b) A-A cross-section view. (not in scales)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation results of the switch using beam propagation method, (a) switch-ON state on both branches, (b) switch-ON state on branch 2 and OFF state on branch 1, (c) switch-ON state on branch 1 and OFF state on branch 2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output optical power versus the applied forward bias.

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