Abstract

A variable -transmittance apodizing filter has been designed and demonstrated at 157 nm. The Gaussian transmission function is created by flowing oxygen gas, which is absorptive below 185 nm, between the two spherical surfaces of meniscus lenses. By varying the oxygen partial pressure, the degree of apodization can be controlled.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Jacquinot and B. Roizen-Dossier, in Progress in Opticsv. 3, ed. E. Wolf (Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company and New York, J. Wiley and Sons, 1964), pp. 29.
    [Crossref]
  2. D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, J. T. Trauger, and T. B. Hull, “Eclipse apodization: realization of occulting spots and Lyot masks,” in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. B. Schultz and R. G. Lyons, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 361 (2003).
  3. M. E. MacDonald, D. P. Ryan-Howard, and E. C. Wack, “Pupil apodization as a means of mitigating diffraction effects in remote sensing instruments,” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4483, 258 (2002).
  4. R. J. Davis, W. C. Karl, A. K. Swan, and M. Selim Ünlü, “Capabilities and limitations of pupil-plane filters for superresolution and image enhancement,” Opt. Express 12, 4150 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4150
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Martínez-Corral, C. Inbáñez-López, G. Saavedra, and M. T. Caballero, “Axial gain resolution in optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy by shaded-ring filters,” Opt. Express 11, 1740 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1740
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. F. Kurtz and M. E. Harrigan, “Gaussian beam apodization and application in a laser printer,” in Laser Beam Shaping, F. M. Dickey and S. C. Holswade, eds., Proc. SPIE 4095, 176 (2000).
  7. S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe“A small-angle scatterometer,” in Stray Light and contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 27 (1988). S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurement,” Opt. Eng.28, 273 (1989).
  8. G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. von Bünau, G. Owen, and R. F. Pease, “Depth of focus enhancement in optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3047 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).
  11. M. Yun, L. Liu, J. Sun, and D. Liu, “Transverse or axial superresolution with radial birefringent filter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1869 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Martínez-Corral, L. Muñoz-Escrivá, M. Kowalczyk, and T. Cichocki, “One-dimensional iterative algorithm for three-dimensional point-spread funct ion engineering,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1861 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Boyer, “New class of axially apodizing filters for confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 584 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. Hideo Okabe, Photochemistry of Small Molecules (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 162–268.
  15. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, New York, 1965) pp. 511 and 435.
  16. V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. Peter Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere (Academic Press, New York, 1988), pg. 100.
  18. W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, J. T. Trauger, and T. B. Hull, “Eclipse apodization: realization of occulting spots and Lyot masks,” in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. B. Schultz and R. G. Lyons, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 361 (2003).

M. Martínez-Corral, C. Inbáñez-López, G. Saavedra, and M. T. Caballero, “Axial gain resolution in optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy by shaded-ring filters,” Opt. Express 11, 1740 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1740
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

G. Boyer, “New class of axially apodizing filters for confocal scanning microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 584 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

M. E. MacDonald, D. P. Ryan-Howard, and E. C. Wack, “Pupil apodization as a means of mitigating diffraction effects in remote sensing instruments,” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4483, 258 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. F. Kurtz and M. E. Harrigan, “Gaussian beam apodization and application in a laser printer,” in Laser Beam Shaping, F. M. Dickey and S. C. Holswade, eds., Proc. SPIE 4095, 176 (2000).

1999 (1)

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. von Bünau, G. Owen, and R. F. Pease, “Depth of focus enhancement in optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bates, A. K.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bloomstein, T. M.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, New York, 1965) pp. 511 and 435.

Boyer, G.

Caballero, M. T.

Cichocki, T.

Davis, R. J.

DeMore, W. B.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Flagello, D.

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

Garreis, R.

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

Göhnermeier, A.

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

Golden, D. M.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Gräupner, P.

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

Grenville, A.

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hampson, R. F.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Hansen, S.

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

Harrigan, M. E.

A. F. Kurtz and M. E. Harrigan, “Gaussian beam apodization and application in a laser printer,” in Laser Beam Shaping, F. M. Dickey and S. C. Holswade, eds., Proc. SPIE 4095, 176 (2000).

Howard, C. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Hsieh, R. L.

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hull, T. B.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, J. T. Trauger, and T. B. Hull, “Eclipse apodization: realization of occulting spots and Lyot masks,” in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. B. Schultz and R. G. Lyons, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 361 (2003).

Inbáñez-López, C.

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot and B. Roizen-Dossier, in Progress in Opticsv. 3, ed. E. Wolf (Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company and New York, J. Wiley and Sons, 1964), pp. 29.
[Crossref]

Karl, W. C.

Köhler, C.

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

Kolb, C. E.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Kowalczyk, M.

Kurtz, A. F.

A. F. Kurtz and M. E. Harrigan, “Gaussian beam apodization and application in a laser printer,” in Laser Beam Shaping, F. M. Dickey and S. C. Holswade, eds., Proc. SPIE 4095, 176 (2000).

Kurylo, M. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Liberman, V.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

Liu, L.

Lowisch, M.

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

MacDonald, M. E.

M. E. MacDonald, D. P. Ryan-Howard, and E. C. Wack, “Pupil apodization as a means of mitigating diffraction effects in remote sensing instruments,” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4483, 258 (2002).

Maker, P. D.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, J. T. Trauger, and T. B. Hull, “Eclipse apodization: realization of occulting spots and Lyot masks,” in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. B. Schultz and R. G. Lyons, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 361 (2003).

Maluf, N. I.

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

Markle, D. A.

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Corral, M.

Molina, M. J.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Muñoz-Escrivá, L.

Okabe, Hideo

Hideo Okabe, Photochemistry of Small Molecules (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 162–268.

Orvek, K.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

Owen, G.

R. von Bünau, G. Owen, and R. F. Pease, “Depth of focus enhancement in optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3047 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pease, R. F.

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. von Bünau, G. Owen, and R. F. Pease, “Depth of focus enhancement in optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ravishankara, A. R.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Roizen-Dossier, B.

P. Jacquinot and B. Roizen-Dossier, in Progress in Opticsv. 3, ed. E. Wolf (Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company and New York, J. Wiley and Sons, 1964), pp. 29.
[Crossref]

Rothschild, M.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ryan-Howard, D. P.

M. E. MacDonald, D. P. Ryan-Howard, and E. C. Wack, “Pupil apodization as a means of mitigating diffraction effects in remote sensing instruments,” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4483, 258 (2002).

Saavedra, G.

Sander, S. P.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

Sedlacek, J. H. C.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

Selim Ünlü, M.

Socha, R.

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

Sun, J.

Swan, A. K.

Trauger, J. T.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, J. T. Trauger, and T. B. Hull, “Eclipse apodization: realization of occulting spots and Lyot masks,” in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. B. Schultz and R. G. Lyons, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 361 (2003).

Uttaro, R. S.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

Van Peski, C.

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

von Bünau, R.

R. von Bünau, G. Owen, and R. F. Pease, “Depth of focus enhancement in optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3047 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wack, E. C.

M. E. MacDonald, D. P. Ryan-Howard, and E. C. Wack, “Pupil apodization as a means of mitigating diffraction effects in remote sensing instruments,” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4483, 258 (2002).

Warneck, Peter

Peter Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere (Academic Press, New York, 1988), pg. 100.

Wein, S. J.

S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe“A small-angle scatterometer,” in Stray Light and contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 27 (1988). S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurement,” Opt. Eng.28, 273 (1989).

S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe“A small-angle scatterometer,” in Stray Light and contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 27 (1988). S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurement,” Opt. Eng.28, 273 (1989).

Wilson, D. W.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, J. T. Trauger, and T. B. Hull, “Eclipse apodization: realization of occulting spots and Lyot masks,” in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. B. Schultz and R. G. Lyons, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 361 (2003).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, New York, 1965) pp. 511 and 435.

Wolfe, W. L.

S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe“A small-angle scatterometer,” in Stray Light and contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 27 (1988). S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurement,” Opt. Eng.28, 273 (1989).

S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe“A small-angle scatterometer,” in Stray Light and contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 27 (1988). S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurement,” Opt. Eng.28, 273 (1989).

Yun, M.

in Earth Observing Systems VI (1)

M. E. MacDonald, D. P. Ryan-Howard, and E. C. Wack, “Pupil apodization as a means of mitigating diffraction effects in remote sensing instruments,” in Earth Observing Systems VI, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE 4483, 258 (2002).

in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection (1)

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, J. T. Trauger, and T. B. Hull, “Eclipse apodization: realization of occulting spots and Lyot masks,” in High-Contrast Imaging for Exo-Planet Detection, A. B. Schultz and R. G. Lyons, eds., Proc. SPIE 4860, 361 (2003).

in Laser Beam Shaping (1)

A. F. Kurtz and M. E. Harrigan, “Gaussian beam apodization and application in a laser printer,” in Laser Beam Shaping, F. M. Dickey and S. C. Holswade, eds., Proc. SPIE 4095, 176 (2000).

in Optical Microlithography VI (1)

P. Gräupner, A. Göhnermeier, M. Lowisch, R. Garreis, D. Flagello, S. Hansen, R. Socha, and C. Köhler, “Solutions for printing sub 100nm contacts with ArF,” in Optical Microlithography VI, A. Yen ed., Proc. SPIE 4691, 503 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

V. Liberman, T. M. Bloomstein, M. Rothschild, J. H. C. Sedlacek, R. S. Uttaro, A. K. Bates, C. Van Peski, and K. Orvek, “Materials issues for optical components and photomasks in 157 nm lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3273 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Owen, R. F. Pease, D. A. Markle, A. Grenville, R. L. Hsieh, R. von Bünau, and N. I. Maluf, “1/8 mm optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3032 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. von Bünau, G. Owen, and R. F. Pease, “Depth of focus enhancement in optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 3047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (6)

Hideo Okabe, Photochemistry of Small Molecules (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 162–268.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, New York, 1965) pp. 511 and 435.

Peter Warneck, Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere (Academic Press, New York, 1988), pg. 100.

W. B. DeMore, S. P. Sander, D. M. Golden, R. F. Hampson, M. J. Kurylo, C. J. Howard, A. R. Ravishankara, C. E. Kolb, and M. J. Molina, “Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling, Evaluation Number 12,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 97–4, January 15, 1997.

P. Jacquinot and B. Roizen-Dossier, in Progress in Opticsv. 3, ed. E. Wolf (Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company and New York, J. Wiley and Sons, 1964), pp. 29.
[Crossref]

S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe“A small-angle scatterometer,” in Stray Light and contamination in Optical Systems, R. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 27 (1988). S. J. Wein and W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurement,” Opt. Eng.28, 273 (1989).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the experimental test-bed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity map through a flood-exposed apodizer cell at different levels of oxygen. Each solid trace represents a separate x or y directional scan. The dashed curves represent the theoretical intensity maps. In order to match the position of the diffraction nulls, the Airy distribution for a 65-µm, rather than 75-µm pinhole has been used in computing the theoret ical curves.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity map in the image plane with 1 atm N2 and 2 atm O2 flowing through the apodizing cell. The dashed curves represent the theoretical profiles.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Rate Constants Used in Eq. (2), at 157 nm [14, 17, 18]

Equations (2)

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P ( r ) = exp ( k gas R r 2 )
τ O 3 = 1 4 ( k b n m k d j a j c ) 1 2

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