Abstract

Families of fractals are investigated as near-field aperture shapes. They are shown to have multiple transmission resonances associated with their multiple length scales. The higher iterations exhibit enhanced transmission, and spatial resolution exceeding the first order. Near-field enhancements of greater than 400 times the incident intensity and resolutions of better than λ/20 have been shown with apertures modeled after third iteration prefractals. Enhancements as large as 1011 have been shown, when compared with conventional square apertures that produce the same spot size. The effects of the complex permittivity values of the metal film are also addressed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Shi and L. Hesselink, “Mechanisms for enhancing power throughput from planar nano-apertures for near-field optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1632–5 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1320–22 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Demming, J. Jersch, S. Klein, and K. Dickman, “Coaxial scanning near-field optical microscope tips: an alternative for conventional tips with high transmission efficiency?,” J. of Microsc. 201, 383–7 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–9 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Thio, K.M. Pellerin, R.A. Linke, H.J. Lezec, and T.W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1972–4 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Sun and L. Hesselink, “Topology visualization of the optical power flow through a novel, C-shaped nano-aperture,” IEEE TCVG Conference, Austin TX 2004 (to be published).
  9. F.J. Garcia-Vidal, H.J. Lezec, T.W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K.J. Falconer, Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications (Wiley, Chichester, 2003).
  11. K. J. Vinoy, K.A. Jose, K. K. Varadan, and V. V. Varadan, “Hilbert curve fractal antenna: a small resonant antenna for VHF/UHF applications,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 215–19 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. Pous, X. Garcia, and F. Benitez, “Fractal multiband antenna based on the Sierpinski gasket,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1–2 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.P. Gianvittorio, J. Romeu, S. Blanch, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Self-similar prefractal frequency selective surfaces for multiband and dual-polarized applications,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation 51, 3088–96 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  14. V.M. Shalaev, Optical properties of nanostructured random media (Springer, New York, 2001).
  15. A. Moreau, G. Granet, F.I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke,”Light transmission by subwavelength square coaxial aperture arrays in metallic films,” Opt. Express 11, 1131–6 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J.A. Matteo, D.P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P.J. Schuck, W.E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 648–50 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C.M. Furse, “Faster than Fourier - ultra-efficient time-to-frequency domain conversions for FDTD,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 42, 24–34 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Leviatan, “Study of near-zone fields of a small aperture,” J. of Appl. Phys.,  60, 1577–83 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X.L. Shi and L. Hesselink, “0,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1305–17 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E.X. Jin and X.F. Xu, “Finite-difference time-domain studies on optical transmission through planar nano-apertures in a metal film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407–17 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. H. Werner and S. Ganguly, “An overview of fractal antenna engineering research,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 45, 38–57 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D.H. Werner and R. Mittra, Frontiers in Electromagnetics (IEEE Press, New York, 2000).
  23. L. Xiangang and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780–2 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, and E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules a at room temperature,” Nature 369, 40–2 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J.A. Matteo, D.P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P.J. Schuck, W.E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 648–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X.L. Shi and L. Hesselink, “0,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1305–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E.X. Jin and X.F. Xu, “Finite-difference time-domain studies on optical transmission through planar nano-apertures in a metal film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiangang and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780–2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

D. H. Werner and S. Ganguly, “An overview of fractal antenna engineering research,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 45, 38–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.P. Gianvittorio, J. Romeu, S. Blanch, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Self-similar prefractal frequency selective surfaces for multiband and dual-polarized applications,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation 51, 3088–96 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. Moreau, G. Granet, F.I. Baida, and D. Van Labeke,”Light transmission by subwavelength square coaxial aperture arrays in metallic films,” Opt. Express 11, 1131–6 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1320–22 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F.J. Garcia-Vidal, H.J. Lezec, T.W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

K. J. Vinoy, K.A. Jose, K. K. Varadan, and V. V. Varadan, “Hilbert curve fractal antenna: a small resonant antenna for VHF/UHF applications,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 215–19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Demming, J. Jersch, S. Klein, and K. Dickman, “Coaxial scanning near-field optical microscope tips: an alternative for conventional tips with high transmission efficiency?,” J. of Microsc. 201, 383–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shi and L. Hesselink, “Mechanisms for enhancing power throughput from planar nano-apertures for near-field optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1632–5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Thio, K.M. Pellerin, R.A. Linke, H.J. Lezec, and T.W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1972–4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C.M. Furse, “Faster than Fourier - ultra-efficient time-to-frequency domain conversions for FDTD,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 42, 24–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. Pous, X. Garcia, and F. Benitez, “Fractal multiband antenna based on the Sierpinski gasket,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1–2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, and E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules a at room temperature,” Nature 369, 40–2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Y. Leviatan, “Study of near-zone fields of a small aperture,” J. of Appl. Phys.,  60, 1577–83 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F.I.

Benitez, F.

C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. Pous, X. Garcia, and F. Benitez, “Fractal multiband antenna based on the Sierpinski gasket,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1–2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, and E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules a at room temperature,” Nature 369, 40–2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blanch, S.

J.P. Gianvittorio, J. Romeu, S. Blanch, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Self-similar prefractal frequency selective surfaces for multiband and dual-polarized applications,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation 51, 3088–96 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, and E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules a at room temperature,” Nature 369, 40–2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Demming, F.

F. Demming, J. Jersch, S. Klein, and K. Dickman, “Coaxial scanning near-field optical microscope tips: an alternative for conventional tips with high transmission efficiency?,” J. of Microsc. 201, 383–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dickman, K.

F. Demming, J. Jersch, S. Klein, and K. Dickman, “Coaxial scanning near-field optical microscope tips: an alternative for conventional tips with high transmission efficiency?,” J. of Microsc. 201, 383–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T.W.

F.J. Garcia-Vidal, H.J. Lezec, T.W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thio, K.M. Pellerin, R.A. Linke, H.J. Lezec, and T.W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1972–4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Falconer, K.J.

K.J. Falconer, Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications (Wiley, Chichester, 2003).

Fromm, D.P.

J.A. Matteo, D.P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P.J. Schuck, W.E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 648–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furse, C.M.

C.M. Furse, “Faster than Fourier - ultra-efficient time-to-frequency domain conversions for FDTD,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 42, 24–34 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, S.

D. H. Werner and S. Ganguly, “An overview of fractal antenna engineering research,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 45, 38–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, X.

C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. Pous, X. Garcia, and F. Benitez, “Fractal multiband antenna based on the Sierpinski gasket,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1–2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F.J.

F.J. Garcia-Vidal, H.J. Lezec, T.W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H.F.

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gianvittorio, J.P.

J.P. Gianvittorio, J. Romeu, S. Blanch, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Self-similar prefractal frequency selective surfaces for multiband and dual-polarized applications,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation 51, 3088–96 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Granet, G.

Hesselink, L.

J.A. Matteo, D.P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P.J. Schuck, W.E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 648–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X.L. Shi and L. Hesselink, “0,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1305–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1320–22 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shi and L. Hesselink, “Mechanisms for enhancing power throughput from planar nano-apertures for near-field optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1632–5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun and L. Hesselink, “Topology visualization of the optical power flow through a novel, C-shaped nano-aperture,” IEEE TCVG Conference, Austin TX 2004 (to be published).

Hosaka, H.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichihara, S.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

L. Xiangang and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780–2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itao, K.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jersch, J.

F. Demming, J. Jersch, S. Klein, and K. Dickman, “Coaxial scanning near-field optical microscope tips: an alternative for conventional tips with high transmission efficiency?,” J. of Microsc. 201, 383–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E.X.

E.X. Jin and X.F. Xu, “Finite-difference time-domain studies on optical transmission through planar nano-apertures in a metal film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jose, K.A.

K. J. Vinoy, K.A. Jose, K. K. Varadan, and V. V. Varadan, “Hilbert curve fractal antenna: a small resonant antenna for VHF/UHF applications,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 215–19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klein, S.

F. Demming, J. Jersch, S. Klein, and K. Dickman, “Coaxial scanning near-field optical microscope tips: an alternative for conventional tips with high transmission efficiency?,” J. of Microsc. 201, 383–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leviatan, Y.

Y. Leviatan, “Study of near-zone fields of a small aperture,” J. of Appl. Phys.,  60, 1577–83 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H.J.

F.J. Garcia-Vidal, H.J. Lezec, T.W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thio, K.M. Pellerin, R.A. Linke, H.J. Lezec, and T.W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1972–4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R.A.

Macklin, J. J.

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, and E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules a at room temperature,” Nature 369, 40–2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F.J. Garcia-Vidal, H.J. Lezec, T.W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matteo, J.A.

J.A. Matteo, D.P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P.J. Schuck, W.E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 648–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuoka, Y.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mittra, R.

D.H. Werner and R. Mittra, Frontiers in Electromagnetics (IEEE Press, New York, 2000).

Moerner, W.E.

J.A. Matteo, D.P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P.J. Schuck, W.E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 648–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, A.

Nakajima, K.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niwa, T.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohkubo, T.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oumi, M.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K.M.

Pous, R.

C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. Pous, X. Garcia, and F. Benitez, “Fractal multiband antenna based on the Sierpinski gasket,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1–2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Puente, C.

C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. Pous, X. Garcia, and F. Benitez, “Fractal multiband antenna based on the Sierpinski gasket,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1–2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rahmat-Samii, Y.

J.P. Gianvittorio, J. Romeu, S. Blanch, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Self-similar prefractal frequency selective surfaces for multiband and dual-polarized applications,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation 51, 3088–96 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Romeu, J.

J.P. Gianvittorio, J. Romeu, S. Blanch, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Self-similar prefractal frequency selective surfaces for multiband and dual-polarized applications,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation 51, 3088–96 (2003)
[CrossRef]

C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. Pous, X. Garcia, and F. Benitez, “Fractal multiband antenna based on the Sierpinski gasket,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1–2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P.J.

J.A. Matteo, D.P. Fromm, Y. Yuen, P.J. Schuck, W.E. Moerner, and L. Hesselink, “Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 648–50 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V.M.

V.M. Shalaev, Optical properties of nanostructured random media (Springer, New York, 2001).

Shi, X.

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1320–22 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shi and L. Hesselink, “Mechanisms for enhancing power throughput from planar nano-apertures for near-field optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1632–5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.L.

Sun, L.

L. Sun and L. Hesselink, “Topology visualization of the optical power flow through a novel, C-shaped nano-aperture,” IEEE TCVG Conference, Austin TX 2004 (to be published).

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, M. Oumi, T. Niwa, S. Ichihara, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Nakajima, T. Ohkubo, H. Hosaka, and K. Itao, “High spatial resolution and throughput potential of an optical head with a triangular aperture for nearfield optical data storage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  42, 1113–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. Thio, K.M. Pellerin, R.A. Linke, H.J. Lezec, and T.W. Ebbesen, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1972–4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, R. L.

Trautman, J. K.

J. K. Trautman, J. J. Macklin, L. E. Brus, and E. Betzig, “Near-field spectroscopy of single molecules a at room temperature,” Nature 369, 40–2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

Varadan, K. K.

K. J. Vinoy, K.A. Jose, K. K. Varadan, and V. V. Varadan, “Hilbert curve fractal antenna: a small resonant antenna for VHF/UHF applications,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 215–19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Varadan, V. V.

K. J. Vinoy, K.A. Jose, K. K. Varadan, and V. V. Varadan, “Hilbert curve fractal antenna: a small resonant antenna for VHF/UHF applications,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 215–19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vinoy, K. J.

K. J. Vinoy, K.A. Jose, K. K. Varadan, and V. V. Varadan, “Hilbert curve fractal antenna: a small resonant antenna for VHF/UHF applications,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 29, 215–19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Werner, D. H.

D. H. Werner and S. Ganguly, “An overview of fractal antenna engineering research,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 45, 38–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Werner, D.H.

D.H. Werner and R. Mittra, Frontiers in Electromagnetics (IEEE Press, New York, 2000).

Wolff, P.A.

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xiangang, L.

L. Xiangang and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780–2 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.F.

E.X. Jin and X.F. Xu, “Finite-difference time-domain studies on optical transmission through planar nano-apertures in a metal film,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 407–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, Y.

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (2354 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2172 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

First three iterations of a). Hilbert Curve, b). Purina Fractal, c). Sierpinski Triangle, and d). Sierpinski Carpet.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Caculated broadband spectral transmission efficiency of apertures modeled after the first three iterations of a). Hilbert Curve b). Purina Fractal, and c.) Sierpinski Carpet.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated electric field distributions of the first three iterations of the Hilbert fractal family at their resonant wavelengths. The second (c.) and third (d.) order resonance of the third iteration fractal aperture is shown.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Animation of the transverse power flow at the input face of the second order resonance of the third iteration Hilbert fractal (3,2). The minimum feature size (d) is set to 54nm, and the wavelength is 1µm. Pseudocolor plot is of the relative intensity for unit input, and the vector flow diagram is of the in plane power flow (Sx,Sy). (2.29MB)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Animation of the transverse power flow at the input face of the third order resonance of the third iteration Hilbert fractal (3,3). The minimum feature size (d) is set to 18.5nm, and the wavelength is 1µm. Pseudocolor plot is of the relative intensity for unit input, and the vector flow diagram is of the in plane power flow (Sx,Sy). (2.12MB)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distribution of Igain and confinement factor values for apertures modeled after the second and third iterations of the Purina Fractal (diamonds), Sierpinski Carpet (squares), and Hilbert Curve(triangles). Square apertures (black line) providing the same spot size are shown for comparison.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Near-field intensity distribution at resonance for the Hilbert (3,2) aperture in a). 100nm thick Ag film, and b). 100nm thick PEC film

Equations (5)

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T . E . ( λ ) = n = 1 n max P n trans ( λ ) A * P inc ( λ )
PT = trans S dA P inc * A aperture
I gain = FWHM E 2 dA E inc 2 * A FWHM
CF = λ 1 2 ( X FWHM + Y FWHM )
D = log ( N ) log ( S )

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