Abstract

We investigate the feasibility of all-optical regeneration based on self-phase modulation in single mode As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber. By combining the chalcogenide fiber with a bandpass filter, we achieve a near step-like power transfer function with no pulse distortion. The device is shown to operate with 5.8 ps duration pulses, thus demonstrating the feasibility of this device operating with high bit-rate data signals. These results are achieved with pulse peak powers <10 W in a fully passive device, including only 2.8 m of chalcogenide fiber. We obtain an excellent agreement between theory and experiment and show that both the high nonlinearity of the chalcogenide glass along with its high normal dispersion near 1550 nm enables a significant device length reduction in comparison with silica-based devices, without compromise on the performance. We find that even for only a few meters of fiber, the large normal dispersion of the chalcogenide glass inhibits spectral oscillations that would appear with self-phase modulation alone. We measure the two photon absorption attenuation coefficient and find that it advantageously affects the device transfer function.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2779 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Brindel, O. Leclerc, D. Rouvillain, B. Dany, and E. Desurvire, “Experimental validation of new regeneration scheme for 40Gbit/s dispersion-managed long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC’00), Anaheim CA, p42, 2000.
  4. P. V. Mamyshev, “All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect”, in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98), p 475, 1998.
  5. M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Rochette, J. L. Blows, and B. J. Eggleton, “An all-optical regenerator that discriminates noise from signal,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’2005) We2.4.1, 2005.
  7. T. Her, G. Raybon, and C. Headley, “Optimization of pulse regeneration at 40 Gb/s based on spectral filtering of self-phase modulation in fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 200 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.
  9. J. Mork, F. Ohman, and S. Bischoff, “Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, pp. 1479–1481 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. R.E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spalter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25, 254–256 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide fiber and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fiber,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. -P. Wei, T. V. Galstian, I. V. Smolnikov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and A. Zohrabyan, “Spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses in a single-mode As-S glass fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 2439 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-7-2439
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989).
  16. J. H. Lee, K. Kikuchi, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, and N. Sugimoto, “All fiber-based 160-Gbit/s add/drop multiplexer incorporating a 1-m-long Bismuth Oxide-based ultra-high nonlinearity fiber,” Opt. Express,  13, 6864 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-18-6864
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Her, G. Raybon, and C. Headley, “Optimization of pulse regeneration at 40 Gb/s based on spectral filtering of self-phase modulation in fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 200 (2004).
[Crossref]

R.E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2779 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mork, F. Ohman, and S. Bischoff, “Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, pp. 1479–1481 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide fiber and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fiber,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989).

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide fiber and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fiber,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref]

Balmefrezol, E.

Bennion, I.

Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bischoff, S.

J. Mork, F. Ohman, and S. Bischoff, “Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, pp. 1479–1481 (2003).
[Crossref]

Blows, J. L.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Rochette, J. L. Blows, and B. J. Eggleton, “An all-optical regenerator that discriminates noise from signal,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’2005) We2.4.1, 2005.

Brindel, P.

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2779 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Brindel, O. Leclerc, D. Rouvillain, B. Dany, and E. Desurvire, “Experimental validation of new regeneration scheme for 40Gbit/s dispersion-managed long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC’00), Anaheim CA, p42, 2000.

Cheong, S. W.

Dany, B.

P. Brindel, O. Leclerc, D. Rouvillain, B. Dany, and E. Desurvire, “Experimental validation of new regeneration scheme for 40Gbit/s dispersion-managed long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC’00), Anaheim CA, p42, 2000.

Desurvire, E.

P. Brindel, O. Leclerc, D. Rouvillain, B. Dany, and E. Desurvire, “Experimental validation of new regeneration scheme for 40Gbit/s dispersion-managed long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC’00), Anaheim CA, p42, 2000.

Dreyer, K.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Eggleton, B. J.

M. Rochette, J. L. Blows, and B. J. Eggleton, “An all-optical regenerator that discriminates noise from signal,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’2005) We2.4.1, 2005.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R-J.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Feder, K.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Galstian, T. V.

Gray, A.

Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, T.

Headley, C.

T. Her, G. Raybon, and C. Headley, “Optimization of pulse regeneration at 40 Gb/s based on spectral filtering of self-phase modulation in fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 200 (2004).
[Crossref]

Her, T.

T. Her, G. Raybon, and C. Headley, “Optimization of pulse regeneration at 40 Gb/s based on spectral filtering of self-phase modulation in fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 200 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Hodelin, J.

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

Joergensen, C.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fiber,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref]

Katsufuji, T.

Khrushchev, I.

Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

Kutz, J. N.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lavigne, B.

Leclerc, O.

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2779 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Brindel, O. Leclerc, D. Rouvillain, B. Dany, and E. Desurvire, “Experimental validation of new regeneration scheme for 40Gbit/s dispersion-managed long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC’00), Anaheim CA, p42, 2000.

Lee, J. H.

Lenz, G.

Leuthtold, J.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Lines, M. E.

Mamyshev, P. V.

P. V. Mamyshev, “All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect”, in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98), p 475, 1998.

Mok, J. T.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mork, J.

J. Mork, F. Ohman, and S. Bischoff, “Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, pp. 1479–1481 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moss, D.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nagashima, T.

Ohara, S.

Ohara, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fiber,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ohman, F.

J. Mork, F. Ohman, and S. Bischoff, “Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, pp. 1479–1481 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pierre, L.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Raybon, G.

T. Her, G. Raybon, and C. Headley, “Optimization of pulse regeneration at 40 Gb/s based on spectral filtering of self-phase modulation in fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 200 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Rochette, M.

M. Rochette, J. L. Blows, and B. J. Eggleton, “An all-optical regenerator that discriminates noise from signal,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’2005) We2.4.1, 2005.

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rouvillain, D.

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2779 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Brindel, O. Leclerc, D. Rouvillain, B. Dany, and E. Desurvire, “Experimental validation of new regeneration scheme for 40Gbit/s dispersion-managed long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC’00), Anaheim CA, p42, 2000.

Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

Seguineau, F.

Shaw, L. B.

Slusher, R. E.

Slusher, R.E.

Smolnikov, I. V.

Spalter, S.

Steinvurzel, P.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Su, Y.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

Sugimoto, N.

Wei, D. -P.

Yokohama, I.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fiber,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, J.

Zohrabyan, A.

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fiber,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide fiber and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

J. Mork, F. Ohman, and S. Bischoff, “Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, pp. 1479–1481 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Huang, A. Gray, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, “10-Gb/s transmission over 100 Mm of standard fiber using 2R regeneration in an optical loop mirror,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2526 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, J. T. Mok, and B. J. Eggleton, “Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Her, G. Raybon, and C. Headley, “Optimization of pulse regeneration at 40 Gb/s based on spectral filtering of self-phase modulation in fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 200 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthtold, R-J. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, and K. Feder, “40Gb/s Psuedo-linear transmission over one million kilometers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications (OFC’02), Anaheim CA, postdeadline paper FD10, 2002.

M. Rochette, J. L. Blows, and B. J. Eggleton, “An all-optical regenerator that discriminates noise from signal,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’2005) We2.4.1, 2005.

P. Brindel, O. Leclerc, D. Rouvillain, B. Dany, and E. Desurvire, “Experimental validation of new regeneration scheme for 40Gbit/s dispersion-managed long-haul transmission,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC’00), Anaheim CA, p42, 2000.

P. V. Mamyshev, “All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect”, in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’98), p 475, 1998.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic, San Diego, 1989).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of device operation. At low intensities, pulses experience little SPM induced spectral broadening and so are removed by the offset bandpass filter. At high intensities, input signal pulses experience large SPM induced spectral broadening and are transmitted through the (offset) bandpass filter. The resulting nonlinear transfer function can be used to regenerate the pulses. The large n 2 in chalcogenide fiber enables operation with less than 3 m of nonlinear fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental configuration for demonstrating optical regeneration. PC - polarization controller, EDFA - erbium doped fiber amplifier, VOA - variable optical attenuator, BPF -bandpass filter, OSA - optical spectrum analyzer and AC - pulse autocorrelator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Regenerator spectra. (a–f) Measured and theoretical SPM broadened pulse spectra with increasing coupled peak power. (g) The bandpass filter transmission spectrum, offset by 1.3nm from the input centre wavelength, and with a 3 dB bandwidth of 70 GHz. (h) Output pulse spectrum at the same power level as in (f). Inset in (h) shows pulse autocorrelation. Pulse width was calculated to be 5.9 ps.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Regenerator transfer function for a filter offset of 1.35 nm. Experiment compared to theory, with and without two photon absorption.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Fiber transfer function (average power), measured with 5.8 ps pulses, clearly showing the effects of nonlinear absorption. Theoretical curves are calculated with and without the effects of TPA considered. (b) Pulse spectra for a peak power of 63 W. Theoretical curves are calculated with and without the effects of TPA loss.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Pulse spectra at 8 W peak power (a) and regenerator transfer function (b) calculated with and without the effect of dispersion.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Regenerator parameters

Equations (1)

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L OPT 2.4 × L D N ,

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