Abstract

The use of large-mode-area tapered holey fibers with collapsed air holes for refractive index sensing is demonstrated. The collapsing of the holes is achieved by tapering the fibers with a “slow-and-hot” method. This non adiabatic process makes the core mode to couple to multiple modes of the solid taper waist. Owing to the beating between the modes the transmission spectra of the tapered holey fibers exhibit several interference peaks. They shift remarkable to longer wavelengths as the external index increases. The multiple peaks, combined with a fitting algorithm, may allow high-accuracy refractometric measurements which can be used for diverse applications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2005 (7)

S. O. Konorov, A. Zheltikov, and M. Scalora, “Photonic-crystal fiber as a multifunctional optical sensor and sample collector,” Opt. Express 13, 3454–3459 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI= OPEX-13-9-3454.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E.C. Magi, H.C. Nguyen, and B.J. Eggleton, “Air-hole collapse and mode transitions in microstructured fiber photonic wires,” Opt. Express 13, 453–459 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-453.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1273–1275 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Modeling, fabrication and characterization of large-mode-area photonic crystal fibers with low bending loss,” in 8th Int. Symposium on Laser Metrology, R. Rodrigues-Vera and F. Mendoza-Santoyo, eds., Proc. SPIE Vol.  5776, 402–408 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

E. C. Magi, P. Steinvurzel, and B.J. Eggleton “Transverse characterization of tapered photonic crystal fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3976–3982 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kiryanov, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya, “Large-mode-area holey fibers with a few air channels in cladding: modeling and experimental investigation of the modal properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1161–1169 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Large-hole-large-spacing holey fibers with a few air holes: fabrication and measurements of light-delivering properties and optical losses,” Laser Phys. 14, 767–771 (2004).

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y.K. Lize, E.C. Magi, V.G. Ta’eed, J.A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B.J. Eggleton, “Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter,” Opt. Express 12, 3209–3217 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Beninion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sampled fibre Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 774–776 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Beninion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[Crossref]

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bagget, J. C.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Belardi, W.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Beninion, I.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Beninion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Bjarklev, A.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A.S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluver Academic Publishers, Boston, (2003).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A.S.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A.S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluver Academic Publishers, Boston, (2003).
[Crossref]

Black, R. J.

Bolger, J.A.

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A.S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluver Academic Publishers, Boston, (2003).
[Crossref]

Bures, J.

Calixto, S.

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Modeling, fabrication and characterization of large-mode-area photonic crystal fibers with low bending loss,” in 8th Int. Symposium on Laser Metrology, R. Rodrigues-Vera and F. Mendoza-Santoyo, eds., Proc. SPIE Vol.  5776, 402–408 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Large-hole-large-spacing holey fibers with a few air holes: fabrication and measurements of light-delivering properties and optical losses,” Laser Phys. 14, 767–771 (2004).

Campopiano, S.

A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. S.

Cusano, A.

A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ding, J. F.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B.J.

Furusawa, K.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Giordono, M.

A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gonthier, F.

Gwandu, B. A. L.

He, S.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Iadiccico, A.

A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jang, J. N.

Johnstone, W.

Kir’yanov, A. V.

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Modeling, fabrication and characterization of large-mode-area photonic crystal fibers with low bending loss,” in 8th Int. Symposium on Laser Metrology, R. Rodrigues-Vera and F. Mendoza-Santoyo, eds., Proc. SPIE Vol.  5776, 402–408 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Large-hole-large-spacing holey fibers with a few air holes: fabrication and measurements of light-delivering properties and optical losses,” Laser Phys. 14, 767–771 (2004).

Kiryanov, A. V.

Konorov, S. O.

Lacroix, S.

Lapierre, J.

Lee, H.

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. B.

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lize, Y.K.

Magi, E. C.

E. C. Magi, P. Steinvurzel, and B.J. Eggleton “Transverse characterization of tapered photonic crystal fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3976–3982 (2004).
[Crossref]

Magi, E.C.

Mansuripur, M.

McCallion, K.

Mejía, E.

Minkovich, V. P.

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Modeling, fabrication and characterization of large-mode-area photonic crystal fibers with low bending loss,” in 8th Int. Symposium on Laser Metrology, R. Rodrigues-Vera and F. Mendoza-Santoyo, eds., Proc. SPIE Vol.  5776, 402–408 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Large-hole-large-spacing holey fibers with a few air holes: fabrication and measurements of light-delivering properties and optical losses,” Laser Phys. 14, 767–771 (2004).

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kiryanov, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya, “Large-mode-area holey fibers with a few air channels in cladding: modeling and experimental investigation of the modal properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1161–1169 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling of holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for sensor applications.”

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and E. Mejía, “Fabrication and modeling of uniform-waist single-mode tapered optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2278–2283 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling of holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for sensor applications.”

Moodie, D.

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Beninion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.C.

Peyghambarian, N.

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Reeves, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Beninion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

Russell, P.St. J.

P.St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scalora, M.

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shao, L. Y.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shu, X.

Sotskaya, L. I.

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kiryanov, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya, “Large-mode-area holey fibers with a few air channels in cladding: modeling and experimental investigation of the modal properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1161–1169 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling of holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for sensor applications.”

Sotsky, A. B.

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kiryanov, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya, “Large-mode-area holey fibers with a few air channels in cladding: modeling and experimental investigation of the modal properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1161–1169 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling of holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for sensor applications.”

Steinvurzel, P.

Ta’eed, V.G.

Talavera, D.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thusrby, G.

Veilleux, C.

Villatoro, J.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and E. Mejía, “Fabrication and modeling of uniform-waist single-mode tapered optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2278–2283 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling of holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for sensor applications.”

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Beninion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[Crossref]

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yan, J. H.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, A. P.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zheltikov, A.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and D. Talavera, “High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 40, 106–107 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono, and A. Cusano, “Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1495–1497 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, “Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1247–1249 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. C. Magi, P. Steinvurzel, and B.J. Eggleton “Transverse characterization of tapered photonic crystal fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3976–3982 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Large-hole-large-spacing holey fibers with a few air holes: fabrication and measurements of light-delivering properties and optical losses,” Laser Phys. 14, 767–771 (2004).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. P. Minkovich, A. V. Kir’yanov, and S. Calixto, “Modeling, fabrication and characterization of large-mode-area photonic crystal fibers with low bending loss,” in 8th Int. Symposium on Laser Metrology, R. Rodrigues-Vera and F. Mendoza-Santoyo, eds., Proc. SPIE Vol.  5776, 402–408 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Beninion, and R. Neal, “A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702–1705 (2002).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P.St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A.S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluver Academic Publishers, Boston, (2003).
[Crossref]

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, A. B. Sotsky, and L. I. Sotskaya are preparing a manuscript to be called “Modeling of holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for sensor applications.”

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Image of the cross section of an untapered HF used in our experiments (left) and illustration of a uniform-waist tapered HF (right). L0 is the length of the uniform waist and ρ is the taper waist diameter. The outer diameter of the fiber was 125 μm and the relative hole diameter d/Λ = 0.5.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM images of three tapered HFs with waist diameters of 50 μm (a), 39 μm (b), and 31 μm (c). The scan sizes of the AFM images are, respectively, 13.3, 11.9, and 3.8 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectra (left) and position of the maxima of the peak or peaks (right) as a function of the external refractive index of three tapered HFs with ρ = 39 (top plots), 31 (middle plots) and 20 μm (bottom plots). The peaks are numbered to show the shift they suffered when the external index changes.

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