Abstract

A swept source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography (FDODT) system was developed. The technique is based on a phase-resolved method where phase information was retrieved from the reconstructed complex fringe signals. The aliasing effects and artifacts caused by lateral scanning and sample movement were removed with a signal processing technique. The standard deviation of the phase shift of the system was reduced from 49 to 1.8 degrees with the signal processing method employed. Structural, Doppler and Doppler variance images of fluid flow through glass channels were quantified, and blood flow through vessels of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was demonstrated in vivo.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T.Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171-173 (2004).
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  18. Y.Yasuno, S.Makita, Y.Sutoh, M.Itoh, and T.Yatagai, "Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1803-1805 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Zhang, W. Jung, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Full range polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 6033-6039 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6033">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6033</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. M. Shen, S. H. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, J. S. Nelson, "Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow," Opt. Lett. 25, 1358-1360 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, �??Phase Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Doppler Tomography for Imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977</a>.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Linduer, "Coherence radar and spectral radar-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977</a>.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, W. Jung, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Full range polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 6033-6039 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6033">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-6033</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, "Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 444- 452 (2005). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-444">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-444</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 13, 3513- 3528 (2005). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T.Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, "Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 30, 147-149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, �??Phase Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Doppler Tomography for Imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source," Opt. Lett. 22, 340-342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. M. Shen, S. H. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, J. S. Nelson, "Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow," Opt. Lett. 25, 1358-1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.Yasuno, S.Makita, Y.Sutoh, M.Itoh, and T.Yatagai, "Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the FDODT system. Phase Mod.: phase modulator; Colli.: collimator; Atte.: adjustable neutral density attenuator; M: mirror; L: Lens; FFP: 100 GHz fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer; D1, D2: photodetectors.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Probability distribution of measured phase difference from the second surface of a stationary microscope cover glass without (a) and with (b) background noise reduction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Structural (a),velocity (b) and Doppler variance (c) images of a fluid flow. (d) The velocity profile in the axial direction in the center of the channel. Channel dimension: 0.5 mm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Three-dimensional structural (a),velocity (b) and Doppler variance (c) images of a fluid flow through a glass channel.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Structural (a) and velocity (b) images of the blood flow in chick chorioallantoic membrane. (c) The velocity profile in the axial direction in the center of the vessel.

Equations (3)

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H ( v ) = { 0 v < 0 1 v 0
f D = Δ ϕ ( z ) 2 π T = 1 2 π T tan 1 ( Im ( j = 1 N S ˜ j T ( z ) S ˜ ( j + 1 ) T * ( z ) ) Re ( j = 1 N S ˜ j T ( z ) S ˜ ( j + 1 ) T * ( z ) ) )
σ 2 = 1 T 2 { 1 j = 1 N S ˜ j T ( z ) S ˜ ( j + 1 ) T * ( z ) j = 1 N S ˜ j T ( z ) S ˜ j T * ( z ) }

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