Abstract

A novel organic electro-optic (EO) modulator using transparent conducting oxides (ZnO and In2O3) as electrodes is demonstrated for the first time. The modulator employs the poled guest-host chromophore/polymer material AJL8/APC having r33=35pm/V and is able to achieve a low Vπ=2.8 V switching voltage for an 8mm-long device at a wavelength of 1.31μm. This corresponds to a Vπ=1.1 V switching voltage for a 1cm-long device in a push-pull configuration. The push-pull VπL figure of merit normalized for the EO coefficient is thus 1.1V-cm/(35 pm/V), which is 3–4x lower than that can be achieved with a convetional modulator structure. The bottom electrode is ZnO grown by Metal-Organic Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) and top electrode In2O3 deposited using ion-beam assisted deposition. The top electrode is directly deposited on the guest-host organic material. The design and fabrication considerations for the modulator are also discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Dagli , “ Wide-Bandwidth Lasers and Modulators for RF Photonics ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1151 – 1171 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Liu , S. T. Ho , S. S. Chang , and T. J. Marks , “ Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Self-Assembled Superlattice (SAS) ,” 2002 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optic,   73 , CtuK5, 196 – 197 ( 2002 ).
  7. P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Tang , D. J. Towner , A. L. Meier , and B. W. Wessels , “ Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4615 – 4617 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. Drummond , S.J. Clarson , J. S. Zetts , F. K. Hopkins , and S. J. Caracci , “ Enhanced electro-optic poling in guest systems using conductive polymer-based cladding layers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 368 – 370 ( 1999 )
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Xu , J. Ma , S. T. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Low-voltage electro-optic modulator structure using transparent conducting oxide with high conductivity-loss ratio as electrode ,” IEEE LEOS Avonics Fiber Optics and Photonics Conference , ThC 4, Minneapolis, 22 September 2005.
  16. G.L. Li , C. K. Sun , S. A. Pappert , W. X. Chen , and P.K.L. Yu , “ Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis ”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1177 – 1183 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

P. Tang , D. J. Towner , A. L. Meier , and B. W. Wessels , “ Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4615 – 4617 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Z. Liu , S. T. Ho , S. S. Chang , and T. J. Marks , “ Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Self-Assembled Superlattice (SAS) ,” 2002 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optic,   73 , CtuK5, 196 – 197 ( 2002 ).

P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

G.L. Li , C. K. Sun , S. A. Pappert , W. X. Chen , and P.K.L. Yu , “ Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis ”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1177 – 1183 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Drummond , S.J. Clarson , J. S. Zetts , F. K. Hopkins , and S. J. Caracci , “ Enhanced electro-optic poling in guest systems using conductive polymer-based cladding layers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 368 – 370 ( 1999 )
[CrossRef]

N. Dagli , “ Wide-Bandwidth Lasers and Modulators for RF Photonics ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1151 – 1171 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Amend, J.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Boom ME, van der

P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

Caracci, S. J.

J. P. Drummond , S.J. Clarson , J. S. Zetts , F. K. Hopkins , and S. J. Caracci , “ Enhanced electro-optic poling in guest systems using conductive polymer-based cladding layers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 368 – 370 ( 1999 )
[CrossRef]

Carlson, B.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. S.

Z. Liu , S. T. Ho , S. S. Chang , and T. J. Marks , “ Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Self-Assembled Superlattice (SAS) ,” 2002 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optic,   73 , CtuK5, 196 – 197 ( 2002 ).

Chang, Y.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. X.

G.L. Li , C. K. Sun , S. A. Pappert , W. X. Chen , and P.K.L. Yu , “ Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis ”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1177 – 1183 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Clarson, S.J.

J. P. Drummond , S.J. Clarson , J. S. Zetts , F. K. Hopkins , and S. J. Caracci , “ Enhanced electro-optic poling in guest systems using conductive polymer-based cladding layers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 368 – 370 ( 1999 )
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

N. Dagli , “ Wide-Bandwidth Lasers and Modulators for RF Photonics ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1151 – 1171 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.R.

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. P.

J. P. Drummond , S.J. Clarson , J. S. Zetts , F. K. Hopkins , and S. J. Caracci , “ Enhanced electro-optic poling in guest systems using conductive polymer-based cladding layers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 368 – 370 ( 1999 )
[CrossRef]

Dutta, P.

P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

Erlig, H.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Evmenenko, G.

P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Fifield, L.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Grote, J. G.

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Haller, M.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Z. Liu , S. T. Ho , S. S. Chang , and T. J. Marks , “ Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Self-Assembled Superlattice (SAS) ,” 2002 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optic,   73 , CtuK5, 196 – 197 ( 2002 ).

G. Xu , J. Ma , S. T. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Low-voltage electro-optic modulator structure using transparent conducting oxide with high conductivity-loss ratio as electrode ,” IEEE LEOS Avonics Fiber Optics and Photonics Conference , ThC 4, Minneapolis, 22 September 2005.

Hopkins, F. K.

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Drummond , S.J. Clarson , J. S. Zetts , F. K. Hopkins , and S. J. Caracci , “ Enhanced electro-optic poling in guest systems using conductive polymer-based cladding layers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 368 – 370 ( 1999 )
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.

H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Ireland, J.

E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Ireland, J. R.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irwin, L.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K-Y.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Jin, S.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H.

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Kannewurf, C.

E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Kannewurf, C. R.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Kincaid, C.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Lane, M.

E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.L.

G.L. Li , C. K. Sun , S. A. Pappert , W. X. Chen , and P.K.L. Yu , “ Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis ”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1177 – 1183 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu , S. T. Ho , S. S. Chang , and T. J. Marks , “ Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Self-Assembled Superlattice (SAS) ,” 2002 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optic,   73 , CtuK5, 196 – 197 ( 2002 ).

Londergan, T.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

G. Xu , J. Ma , S. T. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Low-voltage electro-optic modulator structure using transparent conducting oxide with high conductivity-loss ratio as electrode ,” IEEE LEOS Avonics Fiber Optics and Photonics Conference , ThC 4, Minneapolis, 22 September 2005.

Marks, T.

P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu , S. T. Ho , S. S. Chang , and T. J. Marks , “ Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Self-Assembled Superlattice (SAS) ,” 2002 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optic,   73 , CtuK5, 196 – 197 ( 2002 ).

G. Xu , J. Ma , S. T. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Low-voltage electro-optic modulator structure using transparent conducting oxide with high conductivity-loss ratio as electrode ,” IEEE LEOS Avonics Fiber Optics and Photonics Conference , ThC 4, Minneapolis, 22 September 2005.

Martin, E.

E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Meier, A. L.

P. Tang , D. J. Towner , A. L. Meier , and B. W. Wessels , “ Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4615 – 4617 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Metz, A. W.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. L.

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, M.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Pappert, S. A.

G.L. Li , C. K. Sun , S. A. Pappert , W. X. Chen , and P.K.L. Yu , “ Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis ”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1177 – 1183 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, G.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Ren, A.

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B.

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Sterier, W.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Sterier, W. H.

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Stern, C. L.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C. K.

G.L. Li , C. K. Sun , S. A. Pappert , W. X. Chen , and P.K.L. Yu , “ Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis ”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1177 – 1183 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Szep, A.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Tang, P.

P. Tang , D. J. Towner , A. L. Meier , and B. W. Wessels , “ Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4615 – 4617 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Towner, D. J.

P. Tang , D. J. Towner , A. L. Meier , and B. W. Wessels , “ Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4615 – 4617 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Tsap, B.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, N.

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

van der Boom, M. E.

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wessels, B. W.

P. Tang , D. J. Towner , A. L. Meier , and B. W. Wessels , “ Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4615 – 4617 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

G. Xu , J. Ma , S. T. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Low-voltage electro-optic modulator structure using transparent conducting oxide with high conductivity-loss ratio as electrode ,” IEEE LEOS Avonics Fiber Optics and Photonics Conference , ThC 4, Minneapolis, 22 September 2005.

Yan, H.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P.K.L.

G.L. Li , C. K. Sun , S. A. Pappert , W. X. Chen , and P.K.L. Yu , “ Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis ”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1177 – 1183 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Zetts, J. S.

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Drummond , S.J. Clarson , J. S. Zetts , F. K. Hopkins , and S. J. Caracci , “ Enhanced electro-optic poling in guest systems using conductive polymer-based cladding layers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 368 – 370 ( 1999 )
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

Zyung, T.

H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Lee , W. Hwang , M. Oh , H. Park , T. Zyung , and J. Kim , “ High performance electro-optic polymer waveguide device ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   71 , 3779 – 3781 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang , D. J. Towner , A. L. Meier , and B. W. Wessels , “ Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4615 – 4617 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Drummond , S.J. Clarson , J. S. Zetts , F. K. Hopkins , and S. J. Caracci , “ Enhanced electro-optic poling in guest systems using conductive polymer-based cladding layers ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 368 – 370 ( 1999 )
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

P. Zhu , van der Boom ME , H. Kang , G. Evmenenko , P. Dutta , and T. Marks “ Realization of expeditious layer-by-layer siloxane-based self-assembly as an efficient route to structurally regular acentric superlattices with large electro-optic responses ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 4982 – 4989 ( 2002 )
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Oh , H. Zhang , C. Zhang , H. Erlig , Y. Chang , B. Tsap , D. Chang , A. Szep , W. Sterier , H. Fetterman , and L. Dalton , “ Recent advances in electrooptical polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear Chromophore ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. ,   7 , 826 – 835 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

N. Dagli , “ Wide-Bandwidth Lasers and Modulators for RF Photonics ,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1151 – 1171 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

G.L. Li , C. K. Sun , S. A. Pappert , W. X. Chen , and P.K.L. Yu , “ Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis ”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.   47 , 1177 – 1183 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Ni , H. Yan , A. Wang , Y. Yang , C. L. Stern , A. W. Metz , S. Jin , L. Wang , T. J. Marks , J. R. Ireland , and C. R. Kannewurf , “ MOCVD-derived highly transparent, conductive zinc- and tin-doped indium oxide thin films: precursor synthesis, metastable phase film growth and characterization, and application as anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes ,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. ,   127 , 5613 – 5624 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

L. R. Dalton , W. H. Steier , B. H. Robinson , C. Zhang , A. Ren , S. Garner , A. Chen , T. Londergan , L. Irwin , B. Carlson , L. Fifield , G. Phelan , C. Kincaid , J. Amend , and A. Jen , “ From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials ,” J. Mater. Chem.   9 , 1905 – 1920 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. G. Grote , J. S. Zetts , R. L. Nelson , F. K. Hopkins , L. R. Dalton , C. Zhang , and W. H. Sterier , “ Effect of conductivity and dilectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers ,” Opt. Eng.   40 , 2464 – 2473 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. Zhu , H. Kang , M. E. van der Boom , Z. Liu , G. Xu , J. Ma , D. Zhou , S. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Self-assembled materials and devices that process light ,” in Optical Materials in Defence Systems Technology, Anthony W. Vere and James G. Grote , eds., Proc. SPIE   5621 , 105 – 116 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo , S. Liu , M. Haller , J. Kang , T. Kim , S. Jang , B. Chen , N. Tucker , H. Li , H. Tang , L. Dalton , Y. Liao , B. H. Robinson , and A. K-Y. Jen , “ Recent progress in developing highly efficienct and thermally stable nonlinear optical polymers for electro-optics ,” in Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VI, J. G. Grote and T. Kaino , eds. Proc. SPIE   5351 , 36 Vere 43 ( 2004 ),
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

Y. Shi , C. Zhang , H. Zhang , J. H. Bechtel , L.R. Dalton , B. Robinson , and W. H. Steier , “ Low (sub-1-Volt) half voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved y controlling Chromophore shape ,” Science ,   288 , 119 – 122 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. Martin , M. Yan , M. Lane , J. Ireland , C. Kannewurf , and R. P. H. Chang , “ Properties of multilayer transparent conducting oxide films ,” Thin Solid Films ,   461 , 309 – 315 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Xu , J. Ma , S. T. Ho , and T. J. Marks , “ Low-voltage electro-optic modulator structure using transparent conducting oxide with high conductivity-loss ratio as electrode ,” IEEE LEOS Avonics Fiber Optics and Photonics Conference , ThC 4, Minneapolis, 22 September 2005.

Z. Liu , S. T. Ho , S. S. Chang , and T. J. Marks , “ Waveguide Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Organic Self-Assembled Superlattice (SAS) ,” 2002 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optic,   73 , CtuK5, 196 – 197 ( 2002 ).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of a TCO modulator using poled AJL8/APC as the EO layer and ZnO and In2O3 as the electrodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence modulation bandwidth on the conductivity of the TCO electrode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Modulation response of the TCO modulator. Trace 1 is the applied voltage and trace 2 the optical intensity at the output side of the modulator.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Layer structure of a conventional EO modulator a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Layer structure of a TCO EO modulator.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V π = λd n 3 rLΓ .

Metrics