Abstract

Ultra-compact device geometries requiring the development of new device technologies are essential for the successful implementation of active devices within photonic crystal systems. The basic operation of an ultra-compact silicon-based photonic crystal light modulator actuated by the thermo-optic modulation of the cut-off frequency about the telecommunication wavelength is discussed. A device design using highly localized high temperature resistive heating of heavily doped heating elements situated directly parallel to the photonic crystal light modulator was developed and evaluated using finite difference time domain and finite element analysis. These devices exhibited high extinction ratios and low insertion losses over a 40 nm frequency band around the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm with response times on the order of a few to several microseconds. The reliability implications of using these types of devices are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, �??Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient in crystalline silicon between room temperature and 550 K at the wavelength of 1523 nm,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3338-3340, (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Ghosh, �??Temperature dispersion of refractive indices in crystalline and amorphous silicon,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3570-3572, (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Zhao, G. Z. Li, E. K. Liu, Y. Gao, and X. D. Liu, �??Silicon on insulator Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 µm,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2448-2449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J-M. Halbout, �??Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 771-773 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Tinker and J-B. Lee, �??Thermo-optic photonic crystal light modulator,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221111-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, �??Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, �??Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181-2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.

H. Kahn, R. Ballarini, and A. H. Heuer, �??Dynamic fatigue of silicon,�?? Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 8, 71-76 (2004).

Electron. Lett.

G. V. Treyz, �??Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 µm,�?? Electron. Lett. 27, 118-120 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schuppert, and K. Petermann, �??Singlemode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,�?? Electron. Lett. 30, 406-408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, �??Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon,�?? Electron. Lett. 28, 83-85 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, �??Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736-742 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kosmidou, E. E. Kriezis, and T. D. Tsiboukis, �??Analysis of tunable photonic crystal devices comprising liquid crystal materials as defects,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 657-665 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting 2004

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, �??Waveguiding in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal and single-mode strip waveguides,�?? in 2004 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 809-810 Vol 2.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

C.-Y. Liu and L.-W. Chen, �??Tunable photonic crystal waveguide coupler with nematic liquid crystals,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1849-1851 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, �??Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De La Rue, �??Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermooptic effect,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1528-1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE SoutheastCon 2002

M. Bourouha, M. Bataineh, and M. Guizani, �??Advances in optical switching and networking: past, present, and future,�?? in Proceedings IEEE SoutheastCon 2002 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 405-413.

J. Appl. Phys.

G. E. Jellison and H. H. Burke, �??The temperature dependence of the refractive index of silicon at elevated temperatures at several laser wavelengths,�?? J. Appl. Phys., 60, 841-843 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, N. Carlsson, K. Asakawa, N. Kawai, and K. Inoue, �??Fabrication and characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,�?? J. Appl. Phys.. 91, 922-929 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Della Corte, M. E. Montefusco, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, and G. Cocorullo, �??Temperature dependence analysis of the thermo-optic effect in silicon by single and double oscillator models,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 88, 7115-7119, (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Asheghi, K. Kurabayashi, R. Kasnavi, and K. E. Goodson, �??Thermal conduction in doped single-crystal silicon films,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5079-5088 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kamigaki and Y. Itoh, �??Thermal oxidation of silicon in various oxygen partial pressures diluted by nitrogen,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2891-2896 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, N. Moll, and S. J. McNab, �??Mode mixing in asymmetric double-trench photonic crystal waveguides,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4538-4544 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

F. P. Fehlner, �??Low temperature oxidation of metals and semiconductors,�?? J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 1645-1652 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Taft, �??Thin thermal oxide on silicon,�?? J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 2460-2461 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Fehlner, �??Formation of ultrathin oxide films on silicon,�?? J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 1723-1727 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, �??Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 505-518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, �??Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

L. Que, J.-S. Park, and Y. B. Gianchandani, �??Bent-beam electrothermal actuators -- Part I: Single beam and cascaded devices,�?? J. Microelectromech.Syst. 10, 247-254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

Q.-A. Huang and N. K. S. Lee, �??Analysis and design of polysilicon thermal flexure actuator,�?? J. Micromech. Microeng. 9, 64-70 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

H. H. Li, �??Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,�?? J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561-658 (1980).

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 2003

T. Namazu and Y. Isono,, �??High-cycle fatigue test of nanoscale Si and SiO2 wires based on AFM technique,�?? in Proceedings IEEE Sixteenth Annual International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 662-665.

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 2004

T. Namazu and Y. Isono,, �??High-cycle fatigue damage evaluation for micro-nanoscale single crystal silicon under bending and tensile stressing,�?? in 17th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 149-152.

Microsystem Technologies

Q.-A. Huang and N. K. S. Lee, �??Analytical modeling and optimization for a laterally-driven polysilicon thermal actuator,�?? Microsystem Technologies 5, 133-137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Iodice, F. G. Della Corte, I. Rendina, P. M. Sarro, and M. Bellucci, �??Transient analysis of a high-speed thermo-optic modulator integrated in an all-silicon waveguide,�?? Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 42, 169-175 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, �??Advances in telecom and datacom optical components,�?? Opt. Eng. 40, 1165-1178, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, �??Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902-1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

T. F. Krauss, �??Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics,�?? Phys. Status Solidi A, 197, 688-702 (2003).

Transparent Optical Networks 2004

R. M. De La Rue, �??Photonic crystals and photonic wires for a nanophotonic future?,�?? in Proceedings of 2004 6th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 282-284, Vol 1.

Other

M. Madou, Fundamentals of Microfabrication (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. 1997).

T.-R. Hsu, MEMS & Microsystems: Design and Manufacture (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, New York, 2002).

Properties of Silicon (INSPEC, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London and New York, 1988).

W. C. O�??Mara, R. B. Herring, and L. P. Hunt, Handbook of Semiconductor Silicon Technology (Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, N. J., 1990).

G. T. A. Kovacs, Micromachined Transducers Sourcebook (WCB/McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998).

The Engineering Tool Box, �??Air properties,�?? (2005), <a href= "http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/air-properties-8_156.html">http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/air-properties-8_156.html</a>

J. A. Collins, Failure of Materials in Mechanical Design: Analysis, Prediction, Prevention (John Wiley & Sons, New York 1993).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2002).

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