Abstract

We report, for the first time, bandgap guidance above 3 μm in a silica based air-core photonic crystal fiber. The peak of the bandgap is at 3.14μm with a typical attenuation of ~ 2.6 dB m-1. By further optimization of the structure, modeling suggests that a loss below 1 dB m-1 should be achievable, greatly extending the useful operating range of silica-based single-mode fibers. Such fibers have many potential applications in the mid-IR, offering an alternative to fluoride, tellurite or chalcogenide glass based optical fibers for chemical and biological sensing applications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibres,” C. R. Chimie,  5, 873–883 (2002).
  3. T. Katagiri, Y. Matsuura, and M. Miyagi, “Metal-covered photonic bandgap multilayer for infrared hollow waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7603–7606 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber and Integrated Optics 19, 211–227 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. St. J. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Improved hollowcore photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4582–4588 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, and P. J. Roberts, “Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 12, 835–840 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4080.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultra-high efficiency laser wavelength conversion in gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (12), 123903 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Pottage, David Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass,” Opt. Express 11, 2854–2861 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2854.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, and F. H. Hung, “ As-S and As-Se based photonic band gap fiber for IR laser transmission,” Opt. Express 11, 3455–3460 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3455.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13, 236–244 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmetzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 431783 (1964).
  16. C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

2003 (4)

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Pottage, David Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass,” Opt. Express 11, 2854–2861 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2854.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, and F. H. Hung, “ As-S and As-Se based photonic band gap fiber for IR laser transmission,” Opt. Express 11, 3455–3460 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3455.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibres,” C. R. Chimie,  5, 873–883 (2002).

T. Katagiri, Y. Matsuura, and M. Miyagi, “Metal-covered photonic bandgap multilayer for infrared hollow waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7603–7606 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber and Integrated Optics 19, 211–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmetzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 431783 (1964).

Aggarwal, I. D.

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allan, D.C.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultra-high efficiency laser wavelength conversion in gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bird, David

Birks, T. A.

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultra-high efficiency laser wavelength conversion in gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, S.

Couny, F.

Cregan, R.F.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabian, H.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[Crossref]

Farr, L.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grzesik, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[Crossref]

Haken, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hand, D. P.

Hansen, T. P.

Harrington, J.

J. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber and Integrated Optics 19, 211–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hedley, T. D.

Heitmann, W.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[Crossref]

Humbach, O.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hung, F. H.

Jones, J. D. C.

Katagiri, T.

Knight, J. C.

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. St. J. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Improved hollowcore photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4582–4588 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13, 236–244 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, and P. J. Roberts, “Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 12, 835–840 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Pottage, David Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass,” Opt. Express 11, 2854–2861 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2854.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J.C.

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultra-high efficiency laser wavelength conversion in gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, K.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luan, F.

Ludvigsen, H.

Mangan, B. J.

Mangan, B.J.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmetzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 431783 (1964).

Mason, M. W.

Matsuura, Y.

Miyagi, M.

Muller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petersen, J. C.

Pottage, J. M.

Reid, D. T.

Ritari, T.

Roberts, P. J.

Roberts, P.J.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. St. J. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, “Improved hollowcore photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4582–4588 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13, 236–244 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, and P. J. Roberts, “Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 12, 835–840 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultra-high efficiency laser wavelength conversion in gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Pottage, David Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass,” Opt. Express 11, 2854–2861 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2854.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.S.

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

Sanghera, J. S.

Schmetzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmetzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 431783 (1964).

Shaw, L. B.

Shephard, J. D.

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simonsen, H. R.

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sørensen, T.

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

Tuominen, J.

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, D. P.

Xiao, D.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmetzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 431783 (1964).

Fiber and Integrated Optics (1)

J. Harrington, “A review of IR transmitting, hollow waveguides,” Fiber and Integrated Optics 19, 211–227 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. Koch, “Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,” Nature 424, 657–659 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

J. M. Pottage, David Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and P. J. Roberts, “Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass,” Opt. Express 11, 2854–2861 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2854.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, and F. H. Hung, “ As-S and As-Se based photonic band gap fiber for IR laser transmission,” Opt. Express 11, 3455–3460 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3455.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 13, 236–244 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-717.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, and P. J. Roberts, “Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 12, 835–840 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-1-236.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 4080–4087 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-4080.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J.C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Couny, “Ultra-high efficiency laser wavelength conversion in gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of Megawatt Optical Solitons in Hollow-Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibers,” Science 301, 1702–1704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan, “Singlemode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibres,” C. R. Chimie,  5, 873–883 (2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Bulk attenuation of dry silica (Suprasil F300) used for the HC-PCF fabrication [1].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Micrograph of the HC-PCF designed for operation in the mid-IR region.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental set-up for spectroscopy measurements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Average of 20 spectra (normalized against the lamp spectrum) demonstrating location of the bandgap with a peak at 3.14 μm. The attenuation at 3.14 μm (2.6 dB m-1) is indicated.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Signal recorded as a knife edge is scanned across the output face of the fiber. The zero position represents one edge of the air core. The solid line shows a calculated Gaussian mode profile with an e-2 width of 15μm.

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