Abstract

Acousto-optic imaging of thick biological tissues can be obtained in real-time with an adaptive-wavefront holographic setup, where the holographic media is a self-developping photorefractive crystal. As a consequence, the interference signal resulting from the acousto-optic effect can be easily collected with a high etendue and fast single photodetector. We present a statistical model of the field propagating through the scattering media and show why the various acoustic frequency components contained in the speckle output pattern are uncorrelated. We then give a detailed description of the signal measured through the photorefractive effect, in order to explain the quadratic pressure response observed for the two commonly used configurations setup e.g an amplitude or a phase modulation of the ultrasound.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I.Lahiri, L. Pyrak-Nolte, D.D.Nolte, M. Melloch, R. Kruger, G. Bacher, and M. Klein, �??Laser-based ultrasound detection using photorefractive quantum wells,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1041 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A.Hermanns, C.Benkert, D.M.Lininger, and D.Z.Anderson, �??The transfer function and impulse response of photortefractive two beam coupling,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 750 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Hamel de Montchenault and J.P.Huignard, �??Two-wave mixing with time-modulated signal in Bi12SiO20 theory and application to homodyne wave-front detection,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 63, 624 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. A. de Montmorillon, P. Delaye, J. Launay, and G. Roosen, �??Novel theoretical aspects on photorefractive ultrasonic detection and implementation of a sensor with an optimum sensitivity,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5913�??5922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

F.M.Davidson and C. Field, �??Coherent homodyne optical communication receivers with photorefractive optical combiners,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

S.Bian and J.Frehlich, �??Phase modulated two wave mixing in crystals with long photocarriers lifetimes,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 43(1185) (1996).

J. Opt. A: Pure and Applied Optics

P. Delaye, S. de Rossi, and G. Roosen, �??Photorefractive vibrometer for the detection of high amplitude vibrations on rough surfaces,�?? J. Opt. A: Pure and Applied Optics 2, 209�??215 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

P. Delaye and G. Roosen., �??Evaluation of a photorefractive two beam coupling novelty filter,�?? Opt. Commun. 165, 133�??151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Delaye, L. A. de Montmorillon, and G. Roosen, �??Transmission of time modulated optical signals throug an absorbing photorefractive crystal,�?? Opt. Commun. 118, 154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

E. Bossy, L. Sui, T. W. Murray, and R. A. Roy, �??Fusion of conventional ultrasound imaging and acousto-optic sensing by use of a standard pulsed-ultrasound scanner,�?? Opt. Letters 30(7), 744 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Atlan, B.C. Forget, F. Ramaz, A.C. Boccara, and M. Gross, �??Pulsed acousto-optic imaging in dynamic scattering media with heterodyne parallel speckle detection,�?? Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1360�??1362 (2005).

T. W. Murray, L. Sui, G. Maguluri, R. A. Roy, A. Nieva, F. Blonigen, and C. A. DiMarzio, �??Detection of ultrasound-modulated photons in diffuse media using the photorefractive effect,�?? Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Lévêque, A. C. Boccara, M. Lebec, and H. Saint-Jalmes, �??Ultrasonic tagging of phton paths in scattering media: parallel speckle modulation processing,�?? Opt. Lett. 24(3), 181 (1999).

L. Wang, �??Mechanisms of ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered coherent light: a Monte Carlo model,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1191 (2001).

A. L. an B. G. Sfez, �??Direct, noninvasive detection of photon density in turbid media,�?? Opt. Lett. 27(7), 473 (2002).

L. Wang, S. Jacques, and X. Zhao, "Continuous wave ultrasonic modulation of scattered light to image objects in turbid media," Opt. Lett. 20, 629 (1995).

M. Gross, P. Goy, and M. Al-Koussa, �??Shot-noise detection of ultrasound-tagged photons in ultrasound-modulated optical imaging,�?? Opt. Lett. 28(24) (2003).

M. Gross, P. Goy, B. C. Forget, M. Atlan, F. Ramaz, A. C. Boccara, and A. K. Dunn, �??Heterodyne detection of multiply scattered monochromatic light with a multipixel detector,�?? to appear in Opt. Lett. (2005).

A. Lev, Z. Kotler, and B. Sfez, �??Ultrasound tagged light imaging in turbid media in a reflectance geometry,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 378 (2000).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Wang, �??Mechanisms of ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered coherent light: a analytic model,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Physica B

W. Leutz and G. Maret, �??Ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered light,�?? Physica B 204, 14 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE Press, New York., 1988).

L. Solymar, D.Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The physics and applications of photorefractive materials (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996).

A. Yariv, Quantum electronics (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1989).

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