Abstract

In this paper, we present a numerical and experimental study of W3-4 photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide lasers fabricated on InP substrate. In such a PhC waveguide, the dispersion curve of the fundamental mode folds in the two-dimensional gap of the triangular lattice. Folding occurs at the Brillouin zone edge as in the case of genuine distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. Single-mode emission is presently observed in both electrical and optical pumping configurations. This behavior is attributed to the different levels of out-of-plane losses experienced by the two DFB mode components. Three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain calculations are used to finely quantify the quality factors of the waveguide modes. The modal discrimination is shown to be reinforced when lasing occurs far from the conduction band edge. This trend is also predicted for other canonical waveguides in triangular PhCs as for instance W2-3 waveguides.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J-M. Lourtioz, F. Pommereau, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, L. Legouezigou, F. Lelarge, F. Poingt, G.H. Duan, D. Mulin, S. Bonnefont, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J. Valentin, F. Lozes, A. Talneau, �??Distributed feedback regime of photonic crystal waveguide lasers at 1.5 µm,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett., 85, 5502-5504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Happ, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, J. L. Gentner, and L. Goldstein, �??Two-dimensional photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4-6 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Talneau, L. LeGratiet, J. L. Gentner, A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, S. Olivier �??High external efficiency in a monomode full-photonic-crystal laser under continuous wave electrical injection,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett., 85, 1913-1915 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J-M. Lourtioz, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, S. Bonnefont, D. Mulin, J. Valentin, F. Lozes-Dupuy, F. Pommereau, C. Cuisin, E. derouin, O. Drisse, L. Legouezigou, F. Lelarrge, F. Poingt, G-H. Duan, A. Talneau �??1.5 µm room-temperature emission of square-lattice photonic-crystal waveguide lasers with a single defect line,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Benisty, D. Labilloy, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, T. F. Krauss, A. Béraud, D. Cassagne and C. Jouanin, �??Radiation losses of waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals : positive role of the substrate,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 532-534 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani, M. Agio, �??Intrinsic diffraction losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects�?? Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2011-2013 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Sugitatsu and S. Noda, "Room temperature operation of 2D photonic crystal slab defect-waveguide laser with optical pump," Electron. Lett. 39, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, R. A. Logan and R. Yen, �??Observation of destructive interference in the radiation loss of second-order distributed feedback lasers,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 151-153 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, �??Second-order distributed feedback lasers with mode selection provided by first-order radiation losses,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 144-150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, J. Hong, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, �??Second-and higher order resonant gratings with gain or loss-Part I: Green's Function Analysis,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1421-1430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, J. Hong, X. Li, W.-P. Huang, �??Second-and higher order resonant gratings with gain or loss-Part II: designing complex-coupled DFB lasers with second-order gratings,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1431-1437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

O. Gauthier-Lafaye, D. Mulin, S. Bonnefont, X. Checoury, J-M. Lourtioz, A. Talneau, F. Lozes-Dupuy, �??Highly monomode W1 waveguide square lattice photonic crystal lasers,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1587-1589 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, �??Fabrication of low loss two-dimensional InP photonic crystals by inductively coupled plasma etching,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242-2245 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

J. Zimmermann, H. Scherer, M. Kamp, S. Deubert, J.P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. März, S. Anand,"Photonic crystal waveguides with propagation losses in the 1 dB/mm range,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22 (6), 3356-3358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Q. Chen, Y.-Z. Huang, W.-H. Guo and Li-Juan Yu �??Calculation of propagation loss in photonic crystal waveguides by FDTD technique and Padé approximation,�?? Opt. Commun. 248, 309-315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

S. L. Marple, Digital Spectral analysis with applications, (Prentice-Hall,New Jersey 1987).

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals Springer-Verlag (Berlin Heidelberg 2001).

X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, J-M.Lourtioz, F. Pommereau, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, L. Legouezigou, O.L. Legouezigou, F. Lelarge, F. Poingt, G.H. Duan, S. Bonnefont, D. Mulin, J. Valentin, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, F. Lozes-Dupuy. A. Talneau, �??Distributed Feedback-like Laser Emission in Photonic Crystal Waveguides on InP Substrate,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., to appear in Sept. 2005.

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