Abstract

A general technique for quasi phase matching of nonlinear frequency conversion in molecular gases through the dynamically structured nonlinear optical response of a molecular ensemble is presented. We show that the transient molecular alignment created by an ultrafast alignment pulse can be controlled to periodically modulate the strength of the nonlinear optical susceptibility in the reference frame of a fundamental pulse propagating through the aligned molecules. Simulations show efficient third harmonic generation of an ultrafast fundamental laser pulse.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. Pershan, �??Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,�?? Phys. Rev. A 127, 1918 (1962).
  2. S. Somekh and A. Yariv, �??Phase matching by periodic modulation of the nonlinear optical properties,�?? Opt. Commun. 6, 301 �?? 304 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. McMullen, �??Optical Parametric Interactions in Isotropic Materials Using a Phase-Corrected Stack of Nonlinear Dielectric Plates,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3076�??3081 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Szilagyi, A. Hordvik, and H. Schlossberg, �??Quasi-Phase-Matching Technique for Efficient Optical Mixing and Frequency Doubling,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2025�??2032 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. E. Thompson, J. D. McMullen, and D. B. Anderson, �??2nd-Harmonic Generation in GaAs �??Stack of Plates�?? Using High-Power CO2-Laser Radiation,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 113�??115 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. F. Dewey and L. O. Hocker, �??Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in Rotationally Twinned Crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 442�??444 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Feng, N. B. Ming, J. F. Hong, Y. S. Yang, J. S. Zhu, Z. Yang, and Y. N. Wang, �??Enhancement of 2nd-Harmonic Generation in Linbo3 Crystals with Periodic Laminar Ferroelectric Domains,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 607�??609 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Feisst and P. Koidl, �??Current Induced Periodic Ferroelectric Domain-Structures in Linbo3 Applied for Efficient Nonlinear Optical Frequency Mixing,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125�??1127 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, �??2nd Harmonic-Generation in Poled Polymer-Films,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248�??250 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. L. Williams, D. P. West, and T. A. King, �??Quasi-phase matched third harmonic generation,�?? Opt. Commun. 148, 208�??214 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, �??Optical Third Harmonic Generation in Gases by a Focused Laser Beam,�?? Phys. Rev. 185, 57�??72 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, �??Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Lambda system,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308�??5311 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Durfee, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, �??Ultrabroadband phase-matched optical parametric generation in the ultraviolet by use of guided waves,�?? Opt. Lett. 22, 1565�??1567 (1997).
  14. A. Rundquist, C. Durfee III, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, �??Phase-matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,�?? Science 280, 1412�??1415 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y.W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, �??Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,�?? Science 297, 376�??378 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, �??Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,�?? Nature 421, 51�??54 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, �??Alignment and Trapping of Molecules in Intense Laser Fields,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623�??4626 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Seideman, �??Rotational-Excitation and Molecular Alignment in Intense Laser Fields,�?? J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7887�??7896 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2003)
  21. R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).
  22. H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, �??Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,�?? Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543�??557 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. A. Bartels, N. L. Wagner, M. D. Baertschy, J. Wyss, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Phase-matching conditions for nonlinear frequency conversion by use of aligned molecular gases,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 346�??348 (2003).
  24. Zs. Bor and B. Ràcz �??Group Velocity Dispersion in Prisms and its application to pulse compression and travelling-wave excitation,�?? Opt. Commun. 54 (1985)
  25. A. Rizzo and N. Rahman, �??The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of acetylene relevant for high order harmonic generation,�?? Laser Phys. 9, 416�??421 (1999).
  26. M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, �??Molecular alignment by trains of short laser pulses,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003).
  27. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2001).
  28. L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 8701 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

D. E. Thompson, J. D. McMullen, and D. B. Anderson, �??2nd-Harmonic Generation in GaAs �??Stack of Plates�?? Using High-Power CO2-Laser Radiation,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 113�??115 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Dewey and L. O. Hocker, �??Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects in Rotationally Twinned Crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 442�??444 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, N. B. Ming, J. F. Hong, Y. S. Yang, J. S. Zhu, Z. Yang, and Y. N. Wang, �??Enhancement of 2nd-Harmonic Generation in Linbo3 Crystals with Periodic Laminar Ferroelectric Domains,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 607�??609 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Feisst and P. Koidl, �??Current Induced Periodic Ferroelectric Domain-Structures in Linbo3 Applied for Efficient Nonlinear Optical Frequency Mixing,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125�??1127 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, �??2nd Harmonic-Generation in Poled Polymer-Films,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248�??250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and R. A. Logan, �??Phase-Matched Second-Harmonic Generation in a Liquid-Filled Waveguide,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 375�??377 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. D. McMullen, �??Optical Parametric Interactions in Isotropic Materials Using a Phase-Corrected Stack of Nonlinear Dielectric Plates,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3076�??3081 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. Szilagyi, A. Hordvik, and H. Schlossberg, �??Quasi-Phase-Matching Technique for Efficient Optical Mixing and Frequency Doubling,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2025�??2032 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Seideman, �??Rotational-Excitation and Molecular Alignment in Intense Laser Fields,�?? J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7887�??7896 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

A. Rizzo and N. Rahman, �??The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of acetylene relevant for high order harmonic generation,�?? Laser Phys. 9, 416�??421 (1999).

Nature (1)

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and S. Backus, �??Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light,�?? Nature 421, 51�??54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Somekh and A. Yariv, �??Phase matching by periodic modulation of the nonlinear optical properties,�?? Opt. Commun. 6, 301 �?? 304 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, D. P. West, and T. A. King, �??Quasi-phase matched third harmonic generation,�?? Opt. Commun. 148, 208�??214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zs. Bor and B. Ràcz �??Group Velocity Dispersion in Prisms and its application to pulse compression and travelling-wave excitation,�?? Opt. Commun. 54 (1985)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, �??Optical Third Harmonic Generation in Gases by a Focused Laser Beam,�?? Phys. Rev. 185, 57�??72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. Pershan, �??Interactions between Light Waves in a Nonlinear Dielectric,�?? Phys. Rev. A 127, 1918 (1962).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, �??Alignment and Trapping of Molecules in Intense Laser Fields,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623�??4626 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Merriam, S. J. Sharpe, M. Shverdin, D. Manuszak, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, �??Efficient nonlinear frequency conversion in an all-resonant double-Lambda system,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5308�??5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Misoguti, S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Generation of broadband VUV light using third-order cascaded processes,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 8701 (2001).

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, �??Molecular alignment by trains of short laser pulses,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003).

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, �??Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, �??Colloquium: Aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,�?? Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543�??557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. Rundquist, C. Durfee III, S. Backus, C. Herne, Z. Chang, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, �??Phase-matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,�?? Science 280, 1412�??1415 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y.W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, �??Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,�?? Science 297, 376�??378 (2002).

Other (2)

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2003)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2001).

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