Abstract

The diffraction efficiency of gratings written in ternary SnO2:SiO2:Na2O bulk glasses rises dramatically with time after the occultation of the cw 244nm light used to write the thick hologram. This self-induced behavior lasts for several hours and ultimately leads to refractive index changes as high as 3 10-3.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Fokine and W. Margulis, “Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 302 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  3. G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), PD20 (1999)
  4. G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, “Photorefractive index gratings in SnO2:SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (7), 807 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, J.A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D.N. Payne, “Strong photosensitive gratings in tin-doped phosphosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D.N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-doped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie, C. Contardi, D. Milanese, and M. Ferraris, “Bragg gratings in ternary SnO2:SiO2:Na2O optical glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (16), 1153 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Chiodini, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Sol-gel synthesis of monolithic tin-doped silica glass,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2653 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  9. O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Streltsina, and T. P. Shvaiko-ShvaikovskayaHandbook of glass data, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1985)
  10. G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  12. T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of strong, nearly polarization-independent Bragg reflectorsin germanium-doped silica waveguides on silica substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994)
    [Crossref]
  13. X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large photosensitivity in lead-silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2110 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Uchida, “Calculation of diffraction efficiency in hologram gratings attenuated along the direction perpendicular to the grating vector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 62, 280 (1973)
  15. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969)
  16. G. Brambilla and P. Hua, “Phase separation in highly-photosensitive tin-doped and codoped silica optical fibers and preforms,” Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP), Stresa, Italy, Technical Digest, BthA1 (2001)
  17. H. Hosono and J. Nishii, “High photosensitivity and nanometer scale phase separation in GeO2-SiO2 glass thin films,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1352 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  18. N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

2004 (1)

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

1999 (3)

H. Hosono and J. Nishii, “High photosensitivity and nanometer scale phase separation in GeO2-SiO2 glass thin films,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1352 (1999)
[Crossref]

X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large photosensitivity in lead-silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2110 (1999)
[Crossref]

N. Chiodini, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Sol-gel synthesis of monolithic tin-doped silica glass,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2653 (1999)
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

1995 (2)

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, J.A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D.N. Payne, “Strong photosensitive gratings in tin-doped phosphosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D.N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-doped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995)
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of strong, nearly polarization-independent Bragg reflectorsin germanium-doped silica waveguides on silica substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994)
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993)
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

N. Uchida, “Calculation of diffraction efficiency in hologram gratings attenuated along the direction perpendicular to the grating vector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 62, 280 (1973)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969)

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993)
[Crossref]

Berger, D.

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, “Photorefractive index gratings in SnO2:SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (7), 807 (2000)
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie, C. Contardi, D. Milanese, and M. Ferraris, “Bragg gratings in ternary SnO2:SiO2:Na2O optical glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (16), 1153 (2000)
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla and P. Hua, “Phase separation in highly-photosensitive tin-doped and codoped silica optical fibers and preforms,” Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP), Stresa, Italy, Technical Digest, BthA1 (2001)

Brueck, S. R. J.

X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large photosensitivity in lead-silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2110 (1999)
[Crossref]

Chiodini, N.

N. Chiodini, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Sol-gel synthesis of monolithic tin-doped silica glass,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2653 (1999)
[Crossref]

N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

Cognolato, L.

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Contardi, C.

Cruz, J.L.

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D.N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-doped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995)
[Crossref]

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, J.A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D.N. Payne, “Strong photosensitive gratings in tin-doped phosphosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, J.A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D.N. Payne, “Strong photosensitive gratings in tin-doped phosphosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D.N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-doped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995)
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of strong, nearly polarization-independent Bragg reflectorsin germanium-doped silica waveguides on silica substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994)
[Crossref]

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993)
[Crossref]

Ferraris, M.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie, C. Contardi, D. Milanese, and M. Ferraris, “Bragg gratings in ternary SnO2:SiO2:Na2O optical glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (16), 1153 (2000)
[Crossref]

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Fokine, M.

Gawith, C. B. E.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

Hua, P.

G. Brambilla and P. Hua, “Phase separation in highly-photosensitive tin-doped and codoped silica optical fibers and preforms,” Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP), Stresa, Italy, Technical Digest, BthA1 (2001)

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969)

Kohnke, G.E.

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), PD20 (1999)

Lemaire, P. J.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of strong, nearly polarization-independent Bragg reflectorsin germanium-doped silica waveguides on silica substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994)
[Crossref]

Lemaire, P.J.

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993)
[Crossref]

Long, X. C.

X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large photosensitivity in lead-silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2110 (1999)
[Crossref]

Margulis, W.

Mazurin, O. V.

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Streltsina, and T. P. Shvaiko-ShvaikovskayaHandbook of glass data, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1985)

Meinardi, F.

N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

Menke, Y.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

Milanese, D.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie, C. Contardi, D. Milanese, and M. Ferraris, “Bragg gratings in ternary SnO2:SiO2:Na2O optical glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (16), 1153 (2000)
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of strong, nearly polarization-independent Bragg reflectorsin germanium-doped silica waveguides on silica substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994)
[Crossref]

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993)
[Crossref]

Montrosset, I.

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Morazzoni, F.

N. Chiodini, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Sol-gel synthesis of monolithic tin-doped silica glass,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2653 (1999)
[Crossref]

N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

Motta, G.

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Nightingale, D. W.

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), PD20 (1999)

Nishii, J.

Olivero, M.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

Paleari, A.

N. Chiodini, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Sol-gel synthesis of monolithic tin-doped silica glass,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2653 (1999)
[Crossref]

N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

Payne, D.N.

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D.N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-doped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995)
[Crossref]

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, J.A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D.N. Payne, “Strong photosensitive gratings in tin-doped phosphosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perrone, G.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Pircalaboiu, D.

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Pollock, C. R.

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), PD20 (1999)

Pruneri, V.

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, “Photorefractive index gratings in SnO2:SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (7), 807 (2000)
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie, C. Contardi, D. Milanese, and M. Ferraris, “Bragg gratings in ternary SnO2:SiO2:Na2O optical glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (16), 1153 (2000)
[Crossref]

Reekie, L.

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie, C. Contardi, D. Milanese, and M. Ferraris, “Bragg gratings in ternary SnO2:SiO2:Na2O optical glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (16), 1153 (2000)
[Crossref]

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, “Photorefractive index gratings in SnO2:SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (7), 807 (2000)
[Crossref]

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, J.A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D.N. Payne, “Strong photosensitive gratings in tin-doped phosphosilicate optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D.N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-doped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995)
[Crossref]

Scotti, R.

N. Chiodini, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Sol-gel synthesis of monolithic tin-doped silica glass,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2653 (1999)
[Crossref]

N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

Shvaiko-Shvaikovskaya, T. P.

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Streltsina, and T. P. Shvaiko-ShvaikovskayaHandbook of glass data, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1985)

Smith, P. G. R.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

Spinolo, G.

N. Chiodini, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Sol-gel synthesis of monolithic tin-doped silica glass,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2653 (1999)
[Crossref]

N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

Strasser, T. A.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of strong, nearly polarization-independent Bragg reflectorsin germanium-doped silica waveguides on silica substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994)
[Crossref]

Streltsina, M. V.

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Streltsina, and T. P. Shvaiko-ShvaikovskayaHandbook of glass data, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1985)

Taylor, E. R.

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

Tucknott, J.A.

Uchida, N.

N. Uchida, “Calculation of diffraction efficiency in hologram gratings attenuated along the direction perpendicular to the grating vector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 62, 280 (1973)

White, A. E.

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of strong, nearly polarization-independent Bragg reflectorsin germanium-doped silica waveguides on silica substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994)
[Crossref]

Wigley, P. G.

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), PD20 (1999)

Xu, M. G.

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D.N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-doped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, “Photorefractive index gratings in SnO2:SiO2 optical fibres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (7), 807 (2000)
[Crossref]

D. Milanese, M. Ferraris, Y. Menke, M. Olivero, G. Perrone, C. B. E. Gawith, G. Brambilla, P. G. R. Smith, and E. R. Taylor, “Photosensitive properties of a tin-doped sodium silica glass for direct ultraviolet writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3259 (2004)
[Crossref]

T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, V. Mizrahi, and P. J. Lemaire, “Ultraviolet laser fabrication of strong, nearly polarization-independent Bragg reflectorsin germanium-doped silica waveguides on silica substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3308 (1994)
[Crossref]

X. C. Long and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large photosensitivity in lead-silicate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2110 (1999)
[Crossref]

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969)

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234 (1993)
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Dong, J.L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D.N. Payne, “Enhanced photosensitivity in tin-doped germanosilicate optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995)
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

N. Chiodini, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Sol-gel synthesis of monolithic tin-doped silica glass,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2653 (1999)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

N. Uchida, “Calculation of diffraction efficiency in hologram gratings attenuated along the direction perpendicular to the grating vector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 62, 280 (1973)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. morazzoni, A. Paleari, R. Scotti, and G. Spinolo, “Identification of Sn variants of the E’ center in Sn-doped SiO2,” Phys. Rev. 58, 9645 (1998)

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Perrone, D. Berger, L. Cognolato, M. Ferraris, G. Motta, D. Pircalaboiu, and I. Montrosset, Proc. SPIE 3283, 31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. Brambilla and P. Hua, “Phase separation in highly-photosensitive tin-doped and codoped silica optical fibers and preforms,” Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides (BGPP), Stresa, Italy, Technical Digest, BthA1 (2001)

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), PD20 (1999)

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Streltsina, and T. P. Shvaiko-ShvaikovskayaHandbook of glass data, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1985)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

UV absorption spectrum of the SnO2:SiO2:Na2O P1 sample (t = 100 μm) before UV exposure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top-side view of the experimental set up (PM: photomultiplier).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Growth of diffraction efficiencies as a result of UV exposure of SnO2:SiO2:Na2O P1 sample at two power densities.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of the grating diffraction efficiency, demonstrating the formation of a self induced grating in SnO2:SiO2:Na2O P1 sample (260W/cm2). “A” indicates the part where the He-Ne beam was blocked.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Growth of diffraction efficiencies as a result of self induced gratings in SnO2:SiO2:Na2O P1 sample. The parameter of the experiment is the UV exposure time before the self induced grating growth. (□: exposure time = 1850s, ♦: exposure time =900s)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

a) Optical microscope image of G1 Bragg grating written in the P1 sample; b) TEM picture of small particles in the UV-exposed region of the G1 grating on P1 sample.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Evolution of the modulation index calculated using teff = 40μm in SnO2:SiO2:Na2O P1 sample. “A” indicates the part where the He-Ne beam was blocked.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Glasses fabrication conditions.

Equations (3)

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η = I 1 I 0 = sinh 2 ( Δ α . t eff 2 . cos θ B )
η = ( π . Δn . h λ pr . cos θ B ) 2
η = sin 2 ( π . Δ n mod . t eff λ pr . cos θ B )

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