Abstract

We describe a procedure for rapidly and conveniently prototyping a periodic structure at submicrometer order using holographic interferometry and micro-molding processes. In this experiment, the master of the periodic structure was created on an i-line submicrometer positive photoresist film by a holographic interference using a He-Cd (325nm) laser. A subsequent mold using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer was cast against this master and used as a stamp to transfer the grating pattern onto a UV cure epoxy. The technique shows accurate control for the transferring of a grating�??s period and depth. The grating pattern on the epoxy produced by the PDMS mold shows an average of less than 2% error in the grating period and an average of 15% error in depth reproduction.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Imoto, �??An analysis for contradirectional-coupler-type optical grating filters,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 895-900 (1985).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

D. Y. Kim, S. K. tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, �??Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Kang, M. J. Kim, J. P. Kim, S. J. Yoo, J. S. Lee, D. Y. Kim, and J. J. Kim, �??Polymeric wavelength filters fabricated using holographic surface relief gratings on azobenzene-containing polymer films,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3823-3825 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, �??Narrow spectral bandwidths with grating waveguide structures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4154-4156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao, C. Y. Chen, C. W. Liu, Y. Chang, and C. C. Yang, �??Direct writing of silicon gratings with highly coherent ultraviolet laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2442-2444 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N.Mukherjee, B.J. Eapen, D.M. Keicher, S.Q. Luong, and A. Mukherjee, �??Distributed Bragg reflection in integrated waveguides of polymethylmethacrylate�??, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67,3715-3717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson and J. Albert, �??Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, and G. M. Whitesides, �??Maskless Photolithography: embossed photoresister as its own optical element,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893-2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X.-M. Zhao, S. P-Smith, S. J. Waldman, G. M. Whitesides, and M. Prentiss, �??Demonstration of waveguide couplers fabricated using microtransfer molding,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1017-1019 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

C. H. Lin, Z. H. Zhu, Y. Qian, and Y. H. Lo, �??Cascade self-induced holography: a new grating fabrication technology for DFB/DBR lasers and WDM laser arrays,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron 32, 1752-1759 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Shibata, S. Oku, Y. Kondo, and T. Tamamura, �??Effect of sidelobe on demultiplexing characteristics of a grating-folded directional coupler demultiplexer,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 87-89 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, F. T. S. Yu, and S. Wu, �??Optical monitoring for plasma-etching depth process,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 894-896 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE, Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Eldada, S. Yin, C. Poga, C. Glass, R. Blomquist, and R.A. Norwood, �??Integrated multichannel OADMS using polymer Bragg grating MZIS,�?? IEEE, Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1416-1418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

N. Imoto, �??An analysis for contradirectional-coupler-type optical grating filters,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 895-900 (1985).

H. Hillmer, A. Grabmaier, H. L. Zhu, S. Hansmann, and H. Burkhard, �??Continuously chirped DFB gratings by specially bent waveguides for tunable lasers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1905-1912 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Aramaki, G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, and M. Marciniak, �??Realization of integrated Bragg reflectors in DANs-polymer waveguides,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1189-1195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. C. Lotters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, �??The mechanical properties of the rubber elastic polymer polydimethylsiloxane for sensor applications,�?? J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145-147(1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, A. Huser, and H. P. Herzig, �??Simple technique for replication of micro-optical elements,�?? Opt. Eng. 37, 1804-1808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

Holger Becker and Wolfram Dietz, �??Microfluidic devices for TAS applications fabricated by polymer hot embossing,�?? in Microfluid Devices and Systems, A. B. Frazier and C. H. Ahn, eds., Proc. SPIE 3515, 177-181 (1998).

P. M. Ferm and L. W. Shackjette, �??High volume manufacturing of polymer waveguides via UV- Embossing,�?? in Linear,Nonlinear, and Power-Limiting Organics, E. Manfred, et al., eds., Proc. SPIE 4106, 1-10 (2000).

H. Nishihara, Y. Handa, T. Suhara, and J. Koyama, �??Electron-beam directly written micro gratings for integrated optical circuits,�?? in Photo- and Electro-Optics in Range Instrumentation, J. Water, et al., eds., Proc. SPIE, 134, 152-159 (1980).

M. Rossi, H. Rudmanr, B. Marty, and A. Maciossek, �??Wafer-scale micro-optics replication technology,�?? in Lithographic and Micromaching Techniques for Optical Component Fabrication II, E.-B. Kley and H.P. Herzid, eds., Proc. SPIE 5183, 148-154 (2003).

Proceedings of Progress in Electromagnet (1)

W.C. Wang, W.C. Chuang, C.T. Ho, Y.R. Lian, C.K. Chao, and R.F. Shyu,�??A new novel means of transducing tensile stress,�?? in Proceedings of Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Z.A. Kong, ed. (Hangzhou, China, 2005), pp.89-91.

Synth. Metals (1)

H. D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, M. Harder, T. Paatzsch, M. Popp, and F. Smaglinski, �??Polymer waveguide devices with passive pigtailing: an application of LIGA technology,�?? Synth. Metals 115, 13-20 (2000).

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