Abstract

Because in an air-core photonic-bandgap fiber the fundamental mode travels mostly in air, as opposed to silica in a conventional fiber, the phase of this mode is expected to have a much lower dependence on temperature than in a conventional fiber. We confirm with interferometric measurements in air-core fibers from two manufacturers that their thermal phase sensitivity is indeed ~3 to ~6 times smaller than in an SMF28 fiber, in agreement with an advanced theoretical model. With straightforward fiber design changes (thinner jacket and thicker outer cladding), this sensitivity could be further reduced down to ~11 times that of a standard fiber. This feature is anticipated to have important benefits in fiber optic systems and sensors, especially in the fiber optic gyroscope where it translates into a lower Shupe effect and thus a greater long-term stability.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D.M. Shupe, “Thermally induced nonreciprocity in the fiber-optic interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 19, no.5, p.654–655, (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D.M. Shupe, “Fibre resonator gyroscope: sensitivity and thermal nonreciprocity,” Appl. Opt. 20, no.2, p.286–289, (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R.B. Dyott, “Reduction of the Shupe effect in fibre optic gyros; the random-wound coil,” Electron. Lett. 32, no.23, p. 2177–2178, (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Zhao, J. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Fiber optic gyroscope sensing coils and their winding method,” Semiconductor Electronics 23, no. 5, p. 312–314, (2002).
  5. R.M. Christensen, “Mechanics of cellular and other low-density materials,” Int. Journ. Sol. Struct. 37, no.1 2, p. 93–104, (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. Dangui, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “A fast and accurate numerical tool to model the mode properties of photonic-bandgap fibers,” Optical Fiber Conference Technical Digest, (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S.H. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. Crystal Fibre website, http://www.crystal-fibre.com.
  9. Blaze Photonics website, http://www.blazephotonics.com.
  10. OFS website, http://www.ofsoptics.com.

2005 (1)

V. Dangui, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “A fast and accurate numerical tool to model the mode properties of photonic-bandgap fibers,” Optical Fiber Conference Technical Digest, (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S.H. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Fiber optic gyroscope sensing coils and their winding method,” Semiconductor Electronics 23, no. 5, p. 312–314, (2002).

2000 (1)

R.M. Christensen, “Mechanics of cellular and other low-density materials,” Int. Journ. Sol. Struct. 37, no.1 2, p. 93–104, (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R.B. Dyott, “Reduction of the Shupe effect in fibre optic gyros; the random-wound coil,” Electron. Lett. 32, no.23, p. 2177–2178, (1996).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

Christensen, R.M.

R.M. Christensen, “Mechanics of cellular and other low-density materials,” Int. Journ. Sol. Struct. 37, no.1 2, p. 93–104, (2000).
[Crossref]

Dangui, V.

V. Dangui, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “A fast and accurate numerical tool to model the mode properties of photonic-bandgap fibers,” Optical Fiber Conference Technical Digest, (2005).
[Crossref]

Digonnet, M.J.F.

V. Dangui, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “A fast and accurate numerical tool to model the mode properties of photonic-bandgap fibers,” Optical Fiber Conference Technical Digest, (2005).
[Crossref]

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S.H. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, (2004).
[Crossref]

Dyott, R.B.

R.B. Dyott, “Reduction of the Shupe effect in fibre optic gyros; the random-wound coil,” Electron. Lett. 32, no.23, p. 2177–2178, (1996).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.H.

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S.H. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.K.

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S.H. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, (2004).
[Crossref]

Kino, G.S.

V. Dangui, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “A fast and accurate numerical tool to model the mode properties of photonic-bandgap fibers,” Optical Fiber Conference Technical Digest, (2005).
[Crossref]

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S.H. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Fiber optic gyroscope sensing coils and their winding method,” Semiconductor Electronics 23, no. 5, p. 312–314, (2002).

Liu, J.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Fiber optic gyroscope sensing coils and their winding method,” Semiconductor Electronics 23, no. 5, p. 312–314, (2002).

Shin, J.

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S.H. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, (2004).
[Crossref]

Shupe, D.M.

Zhang, C.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Fiber optic gyroscope sensing coils and their winding method,” Semiconductor Electronics 23, no. 5, p. 312–314, (2002).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Fiber optic gyroscope sensing coils and their winding method,” Semiconductor Electronics 23, no. 5, p. 312–314, (2002).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

R.B. Dyott, “Reduction of the Shupe effect in fibre optic gyros; the random-wound coil,” Electron. Lett. 32, no.23, p. 2177–2178, (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.K. Kim, J. Shin, S.H. Fan, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “Designing air-core photonic-bandgap fibers free of surface modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 551–556, (2004).
[Crossref]

Int. Journ. Sol. Struct. (1)

R.M. Christensen, “Mechanics of cellular and other low-density materials,” Int. Journ. Sol. Struct. 37, no.1 2, p. 93–104, (2000).
[Crossref]

Optical Fiber Conference Technical Digest (1)

V. Dangui, M.J.F. Digonnet, and G.S. Kino, “A fast and accurate numerical tool to model the mode properties of photonic-bandgap fibers,” Optical Fiber Conference Technical Digest, (2005).
[Crossref]

Semiconductor Electronics (1)

Y. Zhao, J. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Fiber optic gyroscope sensing coils and their winding method,” Semiconductor Electronics 23, no. 5, p. 312–314, (2002).

Other (3)

Crystal Fibre website, http://www.crystal-fibre.com.

Blaze Photonics website, http://www.blazephotonics.com.

OFS website, http://www.ofsoptics.com.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-section of a cylindrical fiber with an air core, a honeycomb cladding, an outer glass cladding, and a jacket.

Fig. 2:
Fig. 2:

Computed radial deformation as a function of distance from fiber center for the Crystal Fibre PBF. The inset is a magnification of the radial deformation over the inner cladding honeycomb.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Computed dependence of S, Sn , and SL on the normalized core radius for an air-core fiber (solid curves) and for an SMF28 fiber (reference levels) at 1.5 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM photographs of the two PBFs tested in this work.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental Michelson interferometer used to measure (a) the thermal constant of individual fibers; and (b) the error in the fringe count due to residual heating of the non-PBF portions of the interferometer.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured (a) output power Pout (t) and (b) temperature T(t) for the Blaze Photonics fiber.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SL vs. acrylate jacket thickness for a PBF with the same crystal period and core radius as the Blaze Photonics PBF (see Table 2) but different air filling ratios.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Calculated SL for the same fiber structure as the Blaze Photonics PBF but different jacket material and thickness. The reference value (in green) was calculated for the actual manufactured PBF, which has a 50-μm acrylate jacket.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Calculated dependence of SL on the silica outer cladding thickness.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Thermal and mechanical properties of the fiber materials

Tables Icon

Table 2. Physical parameters of the test fibers

Tables Icon

Table 3. Measured and predicted values of S, SL , and Sn for four different fibers

Equations (17)

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S = 1 ϕ dT ,
ϕ = 2 π n eff L λ
S = 1 ϕ dT = 1 L dL dT + 1 n eff d n eff dT = S L + S n
Δ ϕ = 2 π n eff λ S 0 L Δ T ( t l v , l ) dl
Δ ϕ = 2 π n eff λ S 0 L [ Δ T ( t l v , l ) Δ T ( t L v + l v , l ) ] dl
{ E T = 3 2 ( 1 η ) 3 E 0 E L = ( 1 η ) E 0 v T = 1 v L = v 0
u ( r ) = [ u r ( r ) 0 u z ( z ) ]
ε = [ ε rr = u r r ε θθ = u r r ε zz = u z z ]
ε = s : σ + α Δ T
u z ( z ) = Cz
2 u r r 2 + 1 r u r r u r r 2 = 0 ,
u r ( r ) = Ar + B r
a 0 a M 0 2 π σ zz ( r , θ , z = ± L 2 ) dr = 0
σ zz , h A h + σ zz , cl A cl + σ zz , J A J = 0 ,
S L = Δ L L Δ T = ε zz Δ T A h E h α h + A cl E cl α cl + A J E J α J A h E h + A cl E cl + A J E J
S L A cl E cl α cl + A J E J α J A cl E cl = α cl + A J A cl E J E cl α J
S = Δ ϕ 4 π n eff L Δ L λ Number of fringes 2 n eff L Δ T λ

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