Abstract

Supercontinuum generation can be achieved in the continuous-wave regime with a few watts of pump power launched into kilometer-long fibers. High power spectral density broadband light sources can be obtained in this way. Using a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation model and an ensemble averaging procedure that takes into account the partially-coherent nature of the pump laser, we fully explain for the first time the spectral broadening mechanisms underlying this process. Our simulations and experiments confirm that continuous-wave supercontinuum generation involve Raman soliton dynamics and dispersive waves in a way akin to pulsed supercontinua. The Raman solitons are however generated with a wide distribution of parameters because they originate from the random phase and intensity fluctuations associated with the pump incoherence. This soliton distribution is averaged out by experimental measurements, which explains the remarkable smoothness of experimental continuous-wave supercontinuum spectra.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

2004 (4)

2003 (6)

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. B B77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226, 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904/1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takara, T. Ohara, and K. Sato, “Over 1000 km DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1078–1079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1353–1355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González-Herráez, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Distributed measurement of chromatic dispersion by four-wave mixing and brillouin optical-time-domain analysis,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2210–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (8)

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Su-percontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Maillotte, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, and S. Coen, “Supercon-tinuum generation in air-silica microstructured fibers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 765–771 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1180–1182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Broeng, and M. Kaivola, “Spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses into continuum radiation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 1083–1098 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-20-1083
[PubMed]

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, “Study of an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture fiber continuum generation source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2010–2012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

2000 (4)

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

S. B. Cavalcanti, G. P. Agrawal, and M. Yu, “Noise amplification in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4086–4092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 862–864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Abeeluck, A. K.

A. K. Abeeluck and C. Headley, “Continuous-wave pumping in the anomalous- and normal-dispersion regimes of nonlinear fibers for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 61–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Abeeluck and C. Headley, “Supercontinuum growth in a highly nonlinear fiber with a low-coherence semiconductor laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4863–4865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. B B77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

S. B. Cavalcanti, G. P. Agrawal, and M. Yu, “Noise amplification in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4086–4092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Optics and Photonics Series, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

Avdokhin, A. V.

Bar-Joseph, I.

Barmenkov, Y. O.

Beaud, P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Boppart, S. A.

Broeng, J.

Cavalcanti, S. B.

S. B. Cavalcanti, G. P. Agrawal, and M. Yu, “Noise amplification in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4086–4092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, A. H. L.

Chemla, D. S.

Chudoba, C.

Coen, S.

Corney, J. F.

Corredera, P.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226, 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904/1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

da Cruz, H. R.

de Araujo, M. T.

Dianov, E. M.

E. A. Golovchenko, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, and E. M. Dianov, “Numerical analysis of the Raman spectrum evolution and soliton pulse generation in single-mode fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1626–1632 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904/1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drummond, P. D.

Dudley, J. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emplit, Ph.

Finot, C.

Fomichev, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Fujimoto, J. G.

Genty, G.

Ghanta, R. K.

Golovchenko, E. A.

González-Herráez, M.

M. González-Herráez, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Distributed measurement of chromatic dispersion by four-wave mixing and brillouin optical-time-domain analysis,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2210–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226, 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossard, N.

Gu, X.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Harvey, J. D.

Headley, C.

A. K. Abeeluck and C. Headley, “Continuous-wave pumping in the anomalous- and normal-dispersion regimes of nonlinear fibers for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 61–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Abeeluck and C. Headley, “Supercontinuum growth in a highly nonlinear fiber with a low-coherence semiconductor laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4863–4865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. B B77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hernanz, M. L.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226, 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901/1–4 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodel, W.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horche, P. R.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226, 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901/1–4 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Islam, M. N.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, C. G.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. B B77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

Karasik, A. Ya.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Kimmel, M.

Knight, J. C.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Su-percontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lantz, E.

Lehtonen, M.

Leonhardt, R.

Li, X. D.

Ludvigsen, H.

Lyngå, C.

Maillotte, H.

Mamyshev, P. V.

E. A. Golovchenko, P. V. Mamyshev, A. N. Pilipetskii, and E. M. Dianov, “Numerical analysis of the Raman spectrum evolution and soliton pulse generation in single-mode fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1626–1632 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Marks, D. L.

Martinelli, C.

Martín-López, S.

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226, 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza-Santoyo, F.

Millot, G.

A. Sauter, S. Pitois, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Incoherent modulation instability in instantaneous nonlinear Kerr media,” to be published in Optics Letters.

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Mori, K.

T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 862–864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 862–864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mussot, A.

Nathan Kutz, J.

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904/1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. B B77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Shea, P.

Ohara, T.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, and K. Sato, “Over 1000 km DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1078–1079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Picozzi, A.

A. Sauter, S. Pitois, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Incoherent modulation instability in instantaneous nonlinear Kerr media,” to be published in Optics Letters.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Pitois, S.

Popov, S. V.

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Provino, L.

Ranka, J. K.

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, J. J.

Robert, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

Saruwatari, M.

T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 862–864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, and K. Sato, “Over 1000 km DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1078–1079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauter, A.

A. Sauter, S. Pitois, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Incoherent modulation instability in instantaneous nonlinear Kerr media,” to be published in Optics Letters.

Serkin, V. N.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Shreenath, A. P.

Starodumov, A. N.

Stel’makh, M. F.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Sucha, G.

Sylvestre, T.

Takara, H.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, and K. Sato, “Over 1000 km DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1078–1079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Thévenaz, L.

Torres-Gómez, I.

Trebino, R.

Udem, Th.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanholsbeeck, F.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Weber, H. P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904/1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904/1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Maillotte, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, and S. Coen, “Supercon-tinuum generation in air-silica microstructured fibers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 765–771 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Yan, M. F.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. B B77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

S. B. Cavalcanti, G. P. Agrawal, and M. Yu, “Noise amplification in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4086–4092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeek, E.

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysset, B.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Pulsed and continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion-shifted fibers,” Appl. Phys. B B77, 211–218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. K. Abeeluck and C. Headley, “Supercontinuum growth in a highly nonlinear fiber with a low-coherence semiconductor laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4863–4865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29, 862–864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, T. Ohara, and K. Sato, “Over 1000 km DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1078–1079 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. González-Herráez, S. Martín-López, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, and P. R. Horche, “Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226, 323–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (11)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Abeeluck and C. Headley, “Continuous-wave pumping in the anomalous- and normal-dispersion regimes of nonlinear fibers for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 61–63 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, “Study of an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture fiber continuum generation source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2010–2012 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1353–1355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González-Herráez, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Distributed measurement of chromatic dispersion by four-wave mixing and brillouin optical-time-domain analysis,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2210–2212 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Coen, Ph. Emplit, C. Martinelli, and T. Sylvestre, “Cascaded Raman generation in optical fibers : Influence of chromatic dispersion and Rayleigh backscattering,” Opt. Lett. 29, 998–1000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure-fiber continuum,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1180–1182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Monzón-Hernández, A. N. Starodumov, Y. O. Barmenkov, I. Torres-Gómez, and F. Mendoza-Santoyo, “Continuous-wave measurement of the fiber nonlinear refractive index,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1274–1276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. B. Cavalcanti, G. P. Agrawal, and M. Yu, “Noise amplification in dispersive nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4086–4092 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901/1–4 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901/1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904/1–4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, and A. A. Fomichev, “Stimulated Raman conversion of multisoliton pulses in quartz optical fibers,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 242–244 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 294–297 (1985)].

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Optics and Photonics Series, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

A. Sauter, S. Pitois, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Incoherent modulation instability in instantaneous nonlinear Kerr media,” to be published in Optics Letters.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (2366 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SC spectrum with different pump powers at room temperature (≃ 20 °C). All the curves have been normalized to the same peak value. Inset shows how increasing pump power leads to a stronger pump depletion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Temporal intensity profile of the cw input beam used in the simulations for one particular realization of the random initial spectral phase (shown here with an average power of 1.7 W). (b) Intensity autocorrelation of the RFL output at 2.1 W.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Numerical output spectra for various pump power levels and (b) temporal intensity output at P p = 1.7 W for the initial condition shown in Fig. 2(a). (c) Measured intensity autocorrelation of the SC at P p = 1.7 W.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Results of five identical simulations differing only by the random initial spectral phase and performed with a pump power P p = 1.7 W. (a) represents the initial field intensities while (b) shows the corresponding generated spectra. A movie of the simulation can be seen by clicking on the figure. [Media 1]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of experimental and simulated SC spectra obtained for a pump power of (a) P p = 0.72 W and (b) P p = 1.7 W. The numerical results have been averaged over an ensemble of 100 simulations differing only by the random initial spectral phase.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E z = α 2 E i β 2 2 2 E t 2 + β 3 6 3 E t 3 + + iγE ( t R ( t ' ) E ( z , t t ' ) 2 d t ' + i Γ R ( z , t ) ) .
Γ R ( Ω , z ) Γ R * ( Ω ' , z ' ) = ( 2 f R ħ ω 0 γ ) Im h R ( Ω ) [ n th ( Ω ) + U ( Ω ) ] δ ( z z ' ) δ ( Ω Ω ' )

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