Abstract

From micro-assembly to biological observation, the optical microscope remains one of the most important tools for observing below the threshold of the naked human eye. However, in its conventional form, it suffers from a trade-off between resolution and field of view. This paper presents a new optical microscope design that combines a high speed steering mirror, a custom designed scanner lens, a MEMS deformable mirror, and additional imaging optics to enlarge the field of view while preserving resolving power and operating at a high image acquisition rate. We describe the theory of operation and our design methodology, present a preliminary simulated design, and compare to existing technologies. A reduced functionality experimental prototype demonstrates both micro-assembly and biological observation tasks.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Scanning optical mosaic scope for micro-manipulation ,” in Int. Workshop on Micro-Factories (IWMF02) , R. Hollis and B. J. Nelson , eds., pp. 85 – 88 ( 2002 ).
  2. M. Hafez , Y. Bellouard , T. Sidler , R. Clavel , and R.-P. Salathe , “ Local annealing of shape memory alloys using laser scanning and computer vision ,” in Laser Precision Microfabrication , I. Miyamoto , K. Sugioka , and T. Sigmon , eds., Proc. SPIE   4088 , pp. 160 – 163 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. Hardin , “ Optical scanners enhance vision systems ,” Vision Systems Design   9 , 23 – 27 ( 2004 ).
  4. H. Hoffer , L. Chen , G. Y. Yoon , B. Singer , Y. Yamauchi , and D. R. Williams , “ Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations ,” Opt. Express   8 , 631 – 543 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-11-631 .
    [Crossref]
  5. M. J. Booth , M. A. A. Neil , R. Juskaitis , and T. Wilson , “ Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   35 5788 – 5792 ( 2002 )
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Design of an adaptive scanning optical microscope for simultaneous wide field of view and high resolution ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2005 ) , pp. 462 – 467 .
  7. W. J. Smith , Modern Lens Design, Second Edition ( McGraw-Hill , 2005 ).
  8. E. Hecht , Optics , 4th ed. ( Addison Wesley , 2001 ).
  9. D. B. Murphy , Fundamentals of Light Microscopy ( Wiley-Liss, Inc. , 2001 ).
  10. R. S. Weinstein and M. R. Descour , et al ., “ An array microscope for ultrarapid virtual slide processing and telepahology. Design, fabrication, and validation study ,” Hum. Pathol.   35 , 1303 – 1314 ( 2004 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Zemek , C. Monks , and B. Freiberg , “ Discovery through automation ,” Biophotonics International   10 , 54 – 57 ( 2003 ).
  12. C. Guestrin , F. Cozman , and S. Godoy , “ Industrial applications of image mosaicing and stabilization ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Electronic Systems ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 1998 ), vol. 2 , pp. 174 – 183 .
  13. J. M. Rodgers , “ Curved Focal Surfaces: Design Optimization Through Symmetry, Not Complexity ,” Photonics Tech Briefs - Online ( 2003 ), http://www.ptbmagazine.com/content/040103ora.html .
  14. T. Fusco , J.-M. Conan , V. Michau , G. Rouseet , and F. Assemat , “ Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view ,” in Atmospheric Propogation, Adaptive Systems, and Laser Radar Technology for Remote Sensing ., J. D. Gonglewski , G. W. Kamerman , A. Kohnle , U. Schreiber , and C. Werner , eds., Proc. SPIE   4167 , pp. 168 – 179 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. W. Hardy , Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes ( Oxford University Press , 1998 ).
  16. D. Wick , T. Martinez , S. Restaino , and B. Stone , “ Foveated imaging demonstration ,” Opt. Express   10 , 60 – 65 ( 2002 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-1-60 .
    [PubMed]
  17. L. Sherman , O. Albert , C. Schmidt , G. Vdovin , G. Mourou , and T. Norris , “ Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror ,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII , Proc. SPIE   3919 , pp. 9 – 13 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Kodiyalam and J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski , “ Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation - some formal methods, framework requirements, and application to vehicular design ,” Int. J. Vehicle Design   25 , 3 – 22 ( 2001 ).
    [Crossref]
  19. B. Potsaid and J. T. Wen , “ High performance motion tracking control ,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Control Applications ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 718 – 723 .
  20. T. Bifano , J. Perreault , P. Bierden , and C. Dimas , “ Micromachined deformable mirrors for adaptive optics ,” in High-resolution wavefront control: methods, devices, and applications IV , Proc. SPIE   4825 , pp. 10 – 13 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. Zhang , Y. Bellouard , E. Burder , R. Clavel , A.-N. Poo , and D. W. Hutmacher , “ Shape memory alloy microgripper for robotic microassembly of tissue engineering scaffolds ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 4918 – 4924 ( 2004 ).
  22. F. Ianzini , L. Bresnahan , L. Wang , K. Anderson , and M. Mackey , “ The large scale digital cell analysis system and its use in the quantitative analysis of cell populations ,” in Proceedings of 2nd IEEE-EMB Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 469 – 475 .

2004 (2)

W. Hardin , “ Optical scanners enhance vision systems ,” Vision Systems Design   9 , 23 – 27 ( 2004 ).

R. S. Weinstein and M. R. Descour , et al ., “ An array microscope for ultrarapid virtual slide processing and telepahology. Design, fabrication, and validation study ,” Hum. Pathol.   35 , 1303 – 1314 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. Zemek , C. Monks , and B. Freiberg , “ Discovery through automation ,” Biophotonics International   10 , 54 – 57 ( 2003 ).

J. M. Rodgers , “ Curved Focal Surfaces: Design Optimization Through Symmetry, Not Complexity ,” Photonics Tech Briefs - Online ( 2003 ), http://www.ptbmagazine.com/content/040103ora.html .

2002 (4)

B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Scanning optical mosaic scope for micro-manipulation ,” in Int. Workshop on Micro-Factories (IWMF02) , R. Hollis and B. J. Nelson , eds., pp. 85 – 88 ( 2002 ).

D. Wick , T. Martinez , S. Restaino , and B. Stone , “ Foveated imaging demonstration ,” Opt. Express   10 , 60 – 65 ( 2002 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-1-60 .
[PubMed]

M. J. Booth , M. A. A. Neil , R. Juskaitis , and T. Wilson , “ Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   35 5788 – 5792 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

T. Bifano , J. Perreault , P. Bierden , and C. Dimas , “ Micromachined deformable mirrors for adaptive optics ,” in High-resolution wavefront control: methods, devices, and applications IV , Proc. SPIE   4825 , pp. 10 – 13 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

S. Kodiyalam and J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski , “ Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation - some formal methods, framework requirements, and application to vehicular design ,” Int. J. Vehicle Design   25 , 3 – 22 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

H. Hoffer , L. Chen , G. Y. Yoon , B. Singer , Y. Yamauchi , and D. R. Williams , “ Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations ,” Opt. Express   8 , 631 – 543 ( 2001 ), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-11-631 .
[Crossref]

T. Fusco , J.-M. Conan , V. Michau , G. Rouseet , and F. Assemat , “ Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view ,” in Atmospheric Propogation, Adaptive Systems, and Laser Radar Technology for Remote Sensing ., J. D. Gonglewski , G. W. Kamerman , A. Kohnle , U. Schreiber , and C. Werner , eds., Proc. SPIE   4167 , pp. 168 – 179 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. Hafez , Y. Bellouard , T. Sidler , R. Clavel , and R.-P. Salathe , “ Local annealing of shape memory alloys using laser scanning and computer vision ,” in Laser Precision Microfabrication , I. Miyamoto , K. Sugioka , and T. Sigmon , eds., Proc. SPIE   4088 , pp. 160 – 163 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

L. Sherman , O. Albert , C. Schmidt , G. Vdovin , G. Mourou , and T. Norris , “ Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror ,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII , Proc. SPIE   3919 , pp. 9 – 13 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Albert, O.

L. Sherman , O. Albert , C. Schmidt , G. Vdovin , G. Mourou , and T. Norris , “ Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror ,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII , Proc. SPIE   3919 , pp. 9 – 13 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Anderson, K.

F. Ianzini , L. Bresnahan , L. Wang , K. Anderson , and M. Mackey , “ The large scale digital cell analysis system and its use in the quantitative analysis of cell populations ,” in Proceedings of 2nd IEEE-EMB Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 469 – 475 .

Assemat, F.

T. Fusco , J.-M. Conan , V. Michau , G. Rouseet , and F. Assemat , “ Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view ,” in Atmospheric Propogation, Adaptive Systems, and Laser Radar Technology for Remote Sensing ., J. D. Gonglewski , G. W. Kamerman , A. Kohnle , U. Schreiber , and C. Werner , eds., Proc. SPIE   4167 , pp. 168 – 179 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Bellouard, Y.

B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Scanning optical mosaic scope for micro-manipulation ,” in Int. Workshop on Micro-Factories (IWMF02) , R. Hollis and B. J. Nelson , eds., pp. 85 – 88 ( 2002 ).

M. Hafez , Y. Bellouard , T. Sidler , R. Clavel , and R.-P. Salathe , “ Local annealing of shape memory alloys using laser scanning and computer vision ,” in Laser Precision Microfabrication , I. Miyamoto , K. Sugioka , and T. Sigmon , eds., Proc. SPIE   4088 , pp. 160 – 163 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang , Y. Bellouard , E. Burder , R. Clavel , A.-N. Poo , and D. W. Hutmacher , “ Shape memory alloy microgripper for robotic microassembly of tissue engineering scaffolds ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 4918 – 4924 ( 2004 ).

B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Design of an adaptive scanning optical microscope for simultaneous wide field of view and high resolution ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2005 ) , pp. 462 – 467 .

Bierden, P.

T. Bifano , J. Perreault , P. Bierden , and C. Dimas , “ Micromachined deformable mirrors for adaptive optics ,” in High-resolution wavefront control: methods, devices, and applications IV , Proc. SPIE   4825 , pp. 10 – 13 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Bifano, T.

T. Bifano , J. Perreault , P. Bierden , and C. Dimas , “ Micromachined deformable mirrors for adaptive optics ,” in High-resolution wavefront control: methods, devices, and applications IV , Proc. SPIE   4825 , pp. 10 – 13 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth , M. A. A. Neil , R. Juskaitis , and T. Wilson , “ Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   35 5788 – 5792 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Bresnahan, L.

F. Ianzini , L. Bresnahan , L. Wang , K. Anderson , and M. Mackey , “ The large scale digital cell analysis system and its use in the quantitative analysis of cell populations ,” in Proceedings of 2nd IEEE-EMB Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 469 – 475 .

Burder, E.

H. Zhang , Y. Bellouard , E. Burder , R. Clavel , A.-N. Poo , and D. W. Hutmacher , “ Shape memory alloy microgripper for robotic microassembly of tissue engineering scaffolds ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 4918 – 4924 ( 2004 ).

Chen, L.

Clavel, R.

M. Hafez , Y. Bellouard , T. Sidler , R. Clavel , and R.-P. Salathe , “ Local annealing of shape memory alloys using laser scanning and computer vision ,” in Laser Precision Microfabrication , I. Miyamoto , K. Sugioka , and T. Sigmon , eds., Proc. SPIE   4088 , pp. 160 – 163 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang , Y. Bellouard , E. Burder , R. Clavel , A.-N. Poo , and D. W. Hutmacher , “ Shape memory alloy microgripper for robotic microassembly of tissue engineering scaffolds ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 4918 – 4924 ( 2004 ).

Conan, J.-M.

T. Fusco , J.-M. Conan , V. Michau , G. Rouseet , and F. Assemat , “ Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view ,” in Atmospheric Propogation, Adaptive Systems, and Laser Radar Technology for Remote Sensing ., J. D. Gonglewski , G. W. Kamerman , A. Kohnle , U. Schreiber , and C. Werner , eds., Proc. SPIE   4167 , pp. 168 – 179 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Cozman, F.

C. Guestrin , F. Cozman , and S. Godoy , “ Industrial applications of image mosaicing and stabilization ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Electronic Systems ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 1998 ), vol. 2 , pp. 174 – 183 .

Descour, M. R.

R. S. Weinstein and M. R. Descour , et al ., “ An array microscope for ultrarapid virtual slide processing and telepahology. Design, fabrication, and validation study ,” Hum. Pathol.   35 , 1303 – 1314 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Dimas, C.

T. Bifano , J. Perreault , P. Bierden , and C. Dimas , “ Micromachined deformable mirrors for adaptive optics ,” in High-resolution wavefront control: methods, devices, and applications IV , Proc. SPIE   4825 , pp. 10 – 13 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Freiberg, B.

J. Zemek , C. Monks , and B. Freiberg , “ Discovery through automation ,” Biophotonics International   10 , 54 – 57 ( 2003 ).

Fusco, T.

T. Fusco , J.-M. Conan , V. Michau , G. Rouseet , and F. Assemat , “ Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view ,” in Atmospheric Propogation, Adaptive Systems, and Laser Radar Technology for Remote Sensing ., J. D. Gonglewski , G. W. Kamerman , A. Kohnle , U. Schreiber , and C. Werner , eds., Proc. SPIE   4167 , pp. 168 – 179 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Godoy, S.

C. Guestrin , F. Cozman , and S. Godoy , “ Industrial applications of image mosaicing and stabilization ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Electronic Systems ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 1998 ), vol. 2 , pp. 174 – 183 .

Guestrin, C.

C. Guestrin , F. Cozman , and S. Godoy , “ Industrial applications of image mosaicing and stabilization ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Electronic Systems ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 1998 ), vol. 2 , pp. 174 – 183 .

Hafez, M.

M. Hafez , Y. Bellouard , T. Sidler , R. Clavel , and R.-P. Salathe , “ Local annealing of shape memory alloys using laser scanning and computer vision ,” in Laser Precision Microfabrication , I. Miyamoto , K. Sugioka , and T. Sigmon , eds., Proc. SPIE   4088 , pp. 160 – 163 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Hardin, W.

W. Hardin , “ Optical scanners enhance vision systems ,” Vision Systems Design   9 , 23 – 27 ( 2004 ).

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy , Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes ( Oxford University Press , 1998 ).

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht , Optics , 4th ed. ( Addison Wesley , 2001 ).

Hoffer, H.

Hutmacher, D. W.

H. Zhang , Y. Bellouard , E. Burder , R. Clavel , A.-N. Poo , and D. W. Hutmacher , “ Shape memory alloy microgripper for robotic microassembly of tissue engineering scaffolds ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 4918 – 4924 ( 2004 ).

Ianzini, F.

F. Ianzini , L. Bresnahan , L. Wang , K. Anderson , and M. Mackey , “ The large scale digital cell analysis system and its use in the quantitative analysis of cell populations ,” in Proceedings of 2nd IEEE-EMB Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 469 – 475 .

Juskaitis, R.

M. J. Booth , M. A. A. Neil , R. Juskaitis , and T. Wilson , “ Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   35 5788 – 5792 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Kodiyalam, S.

S. Kodiyalam and J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski , “ Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation - some formal methods, framework requirements, and application to vehicular design ,” Int. J. Vehicle Design   25 , 3 – 22 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Mackey, M.

F. Ianzini , L. Bresnahan , L. Wang , K. Anderson , and M. Mackey , “ The large scale digital cell analysis system and its use in the quantitative analysis of cell populations ,” in Proceedings of 2nd IEEE-EMB Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 469 – 475 .

Martinez, T.

Michau, V.

T. Fusco , J.-M. Conan , V. Michau , G. Rouseet , and F. Assemat , “ Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view ,” in Atmospheric Propogation, Adaptive Systems, and Laser Radar Technology for Remote Sensing ., J. D. Gonglewski , G. W. Kamerman , A. Kohnle , U. Schreiber , and C. Werner , eds., Proc. SPIE   4167 , pp. 168 – 179 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Monks, C.

J. Zemek , C. Monks , and B. Freiberg , “ Discovery through automation ,” Biophotonics International   10 , 54 – 57 ( 2003 ).

Mourou, G.

L. Sherman , O. Albert , C. Schmidt , G. Vdovin , G. Mourou , and T. Norris , “ Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror ,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII , Proc. SPIE   3919 , pp. 9 – 13 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Murphy, D. B.

D. B. Murphy , Fundamentals of Light Microscopy ( Wiley-Liss, Inc. , 2001 ).

Neil, M. A. A.

M. J. Booth , M. A. A. Neil , R. Juskaitis , and T. Wilson , “ Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   35 5788 – 5792 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Norris, T.

L. Sherman , O. Albert , C. Schmidt , G. Vdovin , G. Mourou , and T. Norris , “ Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror ,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII , Proc. SPIE   3919 , pp. 9 – 13 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Perreault, J.

T. Bifano , J. Perreault , P. Bierden , and C. Dimas , “ Micromachined deformable mirrors for adaptive optics ,” in High-resolution wavefront control: methods, devices, and applications IV , Proc. SPIE   4825 , pp. 10 – 13 ( 2002 ).
[Crossref]

Poo, A.-N.

H. Zhang , Y. Bellouard , E. Burder , R. Clavel , A.-N. Poo , and D. W. Hutmacher , “ Shape memory alloy microgripper for robotic microassembly of tissue engineering scaffolds ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 4918 – 4924 ( 2004 ).

Potsaid, B.

B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Scanning optical mosaic scope for micro-manipulation ,” in Int. Workshop on Micro-Factories (IWMF02) , R. Hollis and B. J. Nelson , eds., pp. 85 – 88 ( 2002 ).

B. Potsaid and J. T. Wen , “ High performance motion tracking control ,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Control Applications ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 718 – 723 .

B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Design of an adaptive scanning optical microscope for simultaneous wide field of view and high resolution ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2005 ) , pp. 462 – 467 .

Restaino, S.

Rodgers, J. M.

J. M. Rodgers , “ Curved Focal Surfaces: Design Optimization Through Symmetry, Not Complexity ,” Photonics Tech Briefs - Online ( 2003 ), http://www.ptbmagazine.com/content/040103ora.html .

Rouseet, G.

T. Fusco , J.-M. Conan , V. Michau , G. Rouseet , and F. Assemat , “ Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view ,” in Atmospheric Propogation, Adaptive Systems, and Laser Radar Technology for Remote Sensing ., J. D. Gonglewski , G. W. Kamerman , A. Kohnle , U. Schreiber , and C. Werner , eds., Proc. SPIE   4167 , pp. 168 – 179 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Salathe, R.-P.

M. Hafez , Y. Bellouard , T. Sidler , R. Clavel , and R.-P. Salathe , “ Local annealing of shape memory alloys using laser scanning and computer vision ,” in Laser Precision Microfabrication , I. Miyamoto , K. Sugioka , and T. Sigmon , eds., Proc. SPIE   4088 , pp. 160 – 163 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, C.

L. Sherman , O. Albert , C. Schmidt , G. Vdovin , G. Mourou , and T. Norris , “ Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror ,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII , Proc. SPIE   3919 , pp. 9 – 13 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Sherman, L.

L. Sherman , O. Albert , C. Schmidt , G. Vdovin , G. Mourou , and T. Norris , “ Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror ,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII , Proc. SPIE   3919 , pp. 9 – 13 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Sidler, T.

M. Hafez , Y. Bellouard , T. Sidler , R. Clavel , and R.-P. Salathe , “ Local annealing of shape memory alloys using laser scanning and computer vision ,” in Laser Precision Microfabrication , I. Miyamoto , K. Sugioka , and T. Sigmon , eds., Proc. SPIE   4088 , pp. 160 – 163 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Singer, B.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith , Modern Lens Design, Second Edition ( McGraw-Hill , 2005 ).

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

S. Kodiyalam and J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski , “ Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation - some formal methods, framework requirements, and application to vehicular design ,” Int. J. Vehicle Design   25 , 3 – 22 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Stone, B.

Vdovin, G.

L. Sherman , O. Albert , C. Schmidt , G. Vdovin , G. Mourou , and T. Norris , “ Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror ,” in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII , Proc. SPIE   3919 , pp. 9 – 13 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

F. Ianzini , L. Bresnahan , L. Wang , K. Anderson , and M. Mackey , “ The large scale digital cell analysis system and its use in the quantitative analysis of cell populations ,” in Proceedings of 2nd IEEE-EMB Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2002 ), pp. 469 – 475 .

Weinstein, R. S.

R. S. Weinstein and M. R. Descour , et al ., “ An array microscope for ultrarapid virtual slide processing and telepahology. Design, fabrication, and validation study ,” Hum. Pathol.   35 , 1303 – 1314 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Wen, J. T.

B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Scanning optical mosaic scope for micro-manipulation ,” in Int. Workshop on Micro-Factories (IWMF02) , R. Hollis and B. J. Nelson , eds., pp. 85 – 88 ( 2002 ).

B. Potsaid , Y. Bellouard , and J. T. Wen , “ Design of an adaptive scanning optical microscope for simultaneous wide field of view and high resolution ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2005 ) , pp. 462 – 467 .

B. Potsaid and J. T. Wen , “ High performance motion tracking control ,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Control Applications ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 718 – 723 .

Wick, D.

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, T.

M. J. Booth , M. A. A. Neil , R. Juskaitis , and T. Wilson , “ Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   35 5788 – 5792 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zemek, J.

J. Zemek , C. Monks , and B. Freiberg , “ Discovery through automation ,” Biophotonics International   10 , 54 – 57 ( 2003 ).

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang , Y. Bellouard , E. Burder , R. Clavel , A.-N. Poo , and D. W. Hutmacher , “ Shape memory alloy microgripper for robotic microassembly of tissue engineering scaffolds ,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York , 2004 ), pp. 4918 – 4924 ( 2004 ).

Biophotonics International (1)

J. Zemek , C. Monks , and B. Freiberg , “ Discovery through automation ,” Biophotonics International   10 , 54 – 57 ( 2003 ).

Hum. Pathol. (1)

R. S. Weinstein and M. R. Descour , et al ., “ An array microscope for ultrarapid virtual slide processing and telepahology. Design, fabrication, and validation study ,” Hum. Pathol.   35 , 1303 – 1314 ( 2004 ).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Vehicle Design (1)

S. Kodiyalam and J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski , “ Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation - some formal methods, framework requirements, and application to vehicular design ,” Int. J. Vehicle Design   25 , 3 – 22 ( 2001 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. J. Booth , M. A. A. Neil , R. Juskaitis , and T. Wilson , “ Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope ,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.   35 5788 – 5792 ( 2002 )
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (2515 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (13582 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2491 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (13671 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Optical systems image two point sources in the object plane as two Airy patterns in the image plane. Two pixels are required per Airy core radius to avoid aliasing the image. (b) Black box imaging system. (c) Microscope (left) and lithography lens (right). The lens prescriptions for the microscope objective and lithography lens were obtained from [7] and are not shown to scale.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Conceptual layout of the ASOM

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Conjugate image and aperture planes

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Shape of image field for a thin lens (b) The curved surface of the retina (image sensor) allows for a very simple lens in the human eye (c) The ASOM scanner lens is simplified by allowing a curved image field

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Curved image field of scanner lens assembly

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Field curvature of scanner lens assembly and imaging optics

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

ASOM preliminary design

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The 40mm virtual field of view of the ASOM is compared to that offered by a traditional microscope using a 1024×1024 and 4096×4096 camera (all systems operating at 0.21 NA). The 0.38mm size of the ASOM sub-field of view is also shown with a 512× 512 camera, requiring many scan movements to cover the entire 40mm field.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Viewing different field positions (b) Optimal deformable mirror shape for the specific field position (c) Strehl ratio sampled over the selected field of view

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(774 KB, 14 MB version) Movie demonstrating microgripper tracking with a 3×3 tile mosaic while simultaneously monitoring 2 fixed objects in the workspace.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(1.13 MB, 14 MB version) Movie showing a 3X3 mosaic of living cells taken with the SOMS.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Qualitative comparison of ASOM to other technologies

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Table 2. Preliminary ASOM performance specifications

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Table 3. Estimated scan times (sec.) for different camera pixel counts and scan rates

Equations (2)

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r = 0.61 λ NA ,
W o = kr 2 .

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