Abstract

From micro-assembly to biological observation, the optical microscope remains one of the most important tools for observing below the threshold of the naked human eye. However, in its conventional form, it suffers from a trade-off between resolution and field of view. This paper presents a new optical microscope design that combines a high speed steering mirror, a custom designed scanner lens, a MEMS deformable mirror, and additional imaging optics to enlarge the field of view while preserving resolving power and operating at a high image acquisition rate. We describe the theory of operation and our design methodology, present a preliminary simulated design, and compare to existing technologies. A reduced functionality experimental prototype demonstrates both micro-assembly and biological observation tasks.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  19. B. Potsaid and J. T. Wen, �??High performance motion tracking control,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Control Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 718�??723.
  20. T. Bifano, J. Perreault, P. Bierden, and C. Dimas, �??Micromachined deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,�?? in High-resolution wavefront control: methods, devices, and applications IV, Proc. SPIE 4825, pp. 10�??13 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. 21. H. Zhang, Y. Bellouard, E. Burder, R. Clavel, A.-N. Poo, and D.W. Hutmacher, �??Shape memory alloy micro-gripper for robotic micro-assembly of tissue engineering scaffolds,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 4918�??4924 (2004).
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2nd IEEE-EMB 2002 (1)

F. Ianzini, L. Bresnahan, L. Wang, K. Anderson, and M. Mackey, �??The large scale digital cell analysis system and its use in the quantitative analysis of cell populations,�?? in Proceedings of 2nd IEEE-EMB Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine & Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 469�??475.

Atmospheric Propogation (1)

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, G. Rouseet, and F. Assemat, �??Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view,�?? in Atmospheric Propogation, Adaptive Systems, and Laser Radar Technology for Remote Sensing., J. D. Gonglewski, G.W. Kamerman, A. Kohnle, U. Schreiber, and C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4167, pp. 168�??179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biophotonics International (1)

J. Zemek, C. Monks, and B. Freiberg, �??Discovery through automation,�?? Biophotonics International 10, 54�??57 (2003).

Hum. Pathol. (1)

R. S. Weinstein, M. R. Descour, et al., �??An array microscope for ultrarapid virtual slide processing and telepahology. Design, fabrication, and validation study,�?? Hum. Pathol. 35, 1303�??1314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE International Conference (1)

B. Potsaid, Y. Bellouard, and J. T. Wen, �??Design of an adaptive scanning optical microscope for simultaneous wide field of view and high resolution,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2005), pp. 462�??467

in High-resolution wavefront (1)

T. Bifano, J. Perreault, P. Bierden, and C. Dimas, �??Micromachined deformable mirrors for adaptive optics,�?? in High-resolution wavefront control: methods, devices, and applications IV, Proc. SPIE 4825, pp. 10�??13 (2002).
[CrossRef]

in Int. Workshop on Micro-Factories (1)

B. Potsaid, Y. Bellouard, and J. T. Wen, �??Scanning optical mosaic scope for micro-manipulation,�?? in Int. Workshop on Micro-Factories (IWMF02), R. Hollis and B. J. Nelson, eds., pp. 85�??88 (2002).

in Proceedings of IEEE (1)

21. H. Zhang, Y. Bellouard, E. Burder, R. Clavel, A.-N. Poo, and D.W. Hutmacher, �??Shape memory alloy micro-gripper for robotic micro-assembly of tissue engineering scaffolds,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 4918�??4924 (2004).

in Proceedings of IEEE Conference (1)

B. Potsaid and J. T. Wen, �??High performance motion tracking control,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Control Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2004), pp. 718�??723.

in Proceedings of IEEE International (1)

C. Guestrin, F. Cozman, and S. Godoy, �??Industrial applications of image mosaicing and stabilization,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Electronic Systems (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), vol. 2, pp. 174�??183.

in Three-Dimensional (1)

L. Sherman, O. Albert, C. Schmidt, G.Vdovin, G. Mourou, and T. Norris, �??Adaptive compensation of aberrations in ultrafast 3D microscopy using a deformable mirror,�?? in Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing VII, Proc. SPIE 3919, pp. 9�??13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Vehicle Design (1)

S. Kodiyalam and J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, �??Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation - some formal methods, framework requirements, and application to vehicular design,�?? Int. J. Vehicle Design 25, 3�??22 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Laser Precision Microfabrication (1)

M. Hafez, Y. Bellouard, T. Sidler, R. Clavel, and R.-P. Salathe, �??Local annealing of shape memory alloys using laser scanning and computer vision,�?? in Laser Precision Microfabrication, I. Miyamoto, K. Sugioka, and T. Sigmon, eds., Proc. SPIE 4088, pp. 160�??163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Photonics Tech Briefs (1)

J. M. Rodgers, �??Curved Focal Surfaces: Design Optimization Through Symmetry, Not Complexity,�?? Photonics Tech Briefs - Online (2003), <a href="http://www.ptbmagazine.com/content/040103ora.html"> http://www.ptbmagazine.com/content/040103ora.html</a>

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, �??Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,�?? Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 35 5788-5792 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Vision Systems Design (1)

W. Hardin, �??Optical scanners enhance vision systems,�?? Vision Systems Design 9, 23�??27 (2004).

Other (4)

W. J. Smith, "Modern Lens Design," Second Edition (McGraw-Hill, 2005).

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2001).

D. B. Murphy, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy (Wiley-Liss, Inc., 2001).

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University Press, 1998).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (2515 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (13582 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2491 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (13671 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Optical systems image two point sources in the object plane as two Airy patterns in the image plane. Two pixels are required per Airy core radius to avoid aliasing the image. (b) Black box imaging system. (c) Microscope (left) and lithography lens (right). The lens prescriptions for the microscope objective and lithography lens were obtained from [7] and are not shown to scale.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Conceptual layout of the ASOM

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Conjugate image and aperture planes

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Shape of image field for a thin lens (b) The curved surface of the retina (image sensor) allows for a very simple lens in the human eye (c) The ASOM scanner lens is simplified by allowing a curved image field

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Curved image field of scanner lens assembly

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Field curvature of scanner lens assembly and imaging optics

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

ASOM preliminary design

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The 40mm virtual field of view of the ASOM is compared to that offered by a traditional microscope using a 1024×1024 and 4096×4096 camera (all systems operating at 0.21 NA). The 0.38mm size of the ASOM sub-field of view is also shown with a 512× 512 camera, requiring many scan movements to cover the entire 40mm field.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Viewing different field positions (b) Optimal deformable mirror shape for the specific field position (c) Strehl ratio sampled over the selected field of view

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(774 KB, 14 MB version) Movie demonstrating microgripper tracking with a 3×3 tile mosaic while simultaneously monitoring 2 fixed objects in the workspace.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(1.13 MB, 14 MB version) Movie showing a 3X3 mosaic of living cells taken with the SOMS.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Qualitative comparison of ASOM to other technologies

Tables Icon

Table 2. Preliminary ASOM performance specifications

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Table 3. Estimated scan times (sec.) for different camera pixel counts and scan rates

Equations (2)

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r = 0.61 λ NA ,
W o = kr 2 .

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