Abstract

An optically integrated self-referenced frequency comb laser is demonstrated. The system consists of a passively-modelocked Er-fiber laser, a butt-coupled periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide phase-sensor and an electronic feedback loop for carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) phase stabilization. The f ceo-beat-signal has a linewidth of 62 kHz and is detected with a S/N-ratio of 40 dB, with greatly reduced pulse energy requirements compared to bulk crystal phase-sensors. To our knowledge this is the first self-referenced frequency-comb system entirely based on guided-wave technology.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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Advanced Solid-State Photonics (1)

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicolson, and M. F. Yan, "Carrier envelope phase locking of an in-line, low-noise Er fiber system," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, G. J. Quarles, ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), p. 176-178.

Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

CLEO/QELSP 2005 (1)

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, "Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005), CThG1.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, "Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source," Electron. Lett. 41, 36-37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

OFC 2005 (1)

J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, "A lead silicate holey fiber with g=1860 W-1km-1 at 1550 nm," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2005), PDP22.

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, "Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 1516-1518 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, "Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system," Opt. Lett. 29, 2467-2469. (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, "Absolute measurement of a long, arbitrary distance to less than an optical fringe," Opt. Lett. 29, 1153-1155. (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, "Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 29, 250-252. (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, "Highly efficient second-harmonic generation in buried waveguides formed by annealed and reverse proton exchange in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 27, 179-181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, C. Jorgensen, and T. Veng, "All-fiber, octave-spanning supercontinuum," Opt. Lett. 28, 643-645. (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, and A. D. Yablon, "Supercontinuum generation in ultraviolet-irradiated fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 2363-2365 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement of the Cesium D1 Line with a Mode-Locked Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635-640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10(-19) level," Science 303, 1843-1845. (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. H. Hunt, "Satellite Location Determination System," US Patent #6,778,886 B2 (2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup of an all guided wave frequency comb laser. SA: saturable absorber; EDF: Erbium doped fiber; FBG fiber Bragg grating; HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber; DC: dispersion compensation fiber; IF: interference filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the LiNbO3 waveguide containing mode filters and adiabatic tapers at input and output end to match the mode size to a single-mode fiber. The mode-field diameter in the central mixing region is reduced to enhance harmonic conversion. (b) detected second-harmonic signal at the output, back coupled to a single-mode fiber. For this measurement the fundamental 1064 light in the supercontinuum was blocked in front of the waveguide by a long-pass filter and the waveguide was lens coupled.

Fig 3.
Fig 3.

Calculated group index of the RPE-PPLN waveguide (top) and the dispersion compensating fiber (DC fiber, bottom). For comparison the group index of a bulk PPLN crystal is shown as well.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Detected RF beat signals for comparison of bulk PPLN and waveguide sensor for 1.4 nJ and 0.6 nJ pulse energy respectively. The highest peak is caused by the intermode beat of the frequency comb and corresponds to the comb spacing or equivalently to the oscillator repetition frequency. The other peaks are caused by the CEO phase slip detected in a f-2f interferometer setup.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a): Detected RF beat signal of the free running oscillator. The bandwidth of the free running f ceo related beat signal could be fitted with a 62-kHz FWHM Lorentzian line shape (b) f ceo-related beat signal of the CEO-locked oscillator.

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