Abstract

A facile approach of fabricating a new type of hollow photonic band gap fibers is proposed. Templates for generating such fibers are demonstrated by a complete and uniform coating of a standard silica optical fiber (125 μm diameter) with a three-dimensional colloidal photonic crystal through isothermal heating evaporation induced self-assembly. The photonic crystal cylindrical annulus is characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and is found to yield a 1.4-μm stop band by optical reflection and transmission spectroscopy. The results also demonstrate a practical means of enveloping macro- or micro-curved surfaces with three-dimensional photonic crystals, a task that is geometrically challenging by other photonic crystal fabrication methods.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, for example, J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).
  2. T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039–2041 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications,” Opt. Express 12, 1510–1517 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1510.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G.A. Ozin, “Colloidal Crystal Films: Advances in Universality and Perfection,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589–15598 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Giesche, “Synthesis of monodispersed silica powders II. Controlled growth reaction and continuous production process,” J. Eur. Ceramic Soc. 14, 205–214 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Li, L. E. Ladan, P. R. Herman, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “Colloidal photonic crystal mirrors for high-resolving-power Fabry-Perots,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CTuDD2 (San Francisco, CA, May 16–24, 2004).
  12. H. C. Nguyen, P. Domachuk, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. Straub, M. Gu, and M. Sumetsky, “New slant on photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 1528–1539 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.or g/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1528.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturn, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289–293 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. H. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. EI-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Three-dimensionally periodic dielectric layered structure with omnidirectional photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3490–3492 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G.A. Ozin, “Colloidal Crystal Films: Advances in Universality and Perfection,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589–15598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. EI-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturn, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Three-dimensionally periodic dielectric layered structure with omnidirectional photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3490–3492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039–2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. H. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

H. Giesche, “Synthesis of monodispersed silica powders II. Controlled growth reaction and continuous production process,” J. Eur. Ceramic Soc. 14, 205–214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkin, D. M.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

Benoit, G.

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. EI-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, A.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bo, X.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturn, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broeng, J.

J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bur, J.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039–2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chomski, E.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domachuk, P.

Eggleton, B. J.

EI-Kady, I.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. EI-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engeness, T. D.

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039–2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. H. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications,” Opt. Express 12, 1510–1517 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1510.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039–2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, J. G.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. EI-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giesche, H.

H. Giesche, “Synthesis of monodispersed silica powders II. Controlled growth reaction and continuous production process,” J. Eur. Ceramic Soc. 14, 205–214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grabchak, S.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Hart, S. D.

Herman, P. R.

J. Li, L. E. Ladan, P. R. Herman, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “Colloidal photonic crystal mirrors for high-resolving-power Fabry-Perots,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CTuDD2 (San Francisco, CA, May 16–24, 2004).

Hetherington, D. L

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. EI-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ibisate, M

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, S. A.

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

K. Kuriki, O. Shapira, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, Y. Kuriki, J. F. Viens, M. Bayindir, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications,” Opt. Express 12, 1510–1517 (2004),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1510.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Three-dimensionally periodic dielectric layered structure with omnidirectional photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3490–3492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039–2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. H. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

John, S.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Three-dimensionally periodic dielectric layered structure with omnidirectional photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3490–3492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitaev, V.

J. Li, L. E. Ladan, P. R. Herman, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “Colloidal photonic crystal mirrors for high-resolving-power Fabry-Perots,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CTuDD2 (San Francisco, CA, May 16–24, 2004).

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G.A. Ozin, “Colloidal Crystal Films: Advances in Universality and Perfection,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589–15598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuriki, K.

Kuriki, Y.

Kurtz, S. R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ladan, L. E.

J. Li, L. E. Ladan, P. R. Herman, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “Colloidal photonic crystal mirrors for high-resolving-power Fabry-Perots,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CTuDD2 (San Francisco, CA, May 16–24, 2004).

Leonard, S. W.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, L. E. Ladan, P. R. Herman, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “Colloidal photonic crystal mirrors for high-resolving-power Fabry-Perots,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CTuDD2 (San Francisco, CA, May 16–24, 2004).

Lin, S. Y.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. EI-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

See, for example, J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Meseguer, F.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, E.

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miguez, H.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mondia, J. P.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H. C.

Noda, S.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturn, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Özbay, E.

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

J. Li, L. E. Ladan, P. R. Herman, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “Colloidal photonic crystal mirrors for high-resolving-power Fabry-Perots,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CTuDD2 (San Francisco, CA, May 16–24, 2004).

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozin, G.A.

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G.A. Ozin, “Colloidal Crystal Films: Advances in Universality and Perfection,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589–15598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

Shepherd, T. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. K.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Straub, M.

Sturn, J. C.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturn, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumetsky, M.

Thomas, E. L.

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2039–2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toader, O.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuttle, G.

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viens, J. F.

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. H. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturn, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisberg, O.

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Wong, S.

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G.A. Ozin, “Colloidal Crystal Films: Advances in Universality and Perfection,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589–15598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubrzycki, W.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Özbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, and K. M. Ho, “Micromachined millimeter-wave photonic band-gap crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059–2061 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Three-dimensionally periodic dielectric layered structure with omnidirectional photonic band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3490–3492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1941–1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Wong, V. Kitaev, and G.A. Ozin, “Colloidal Crystal Films: Advances in Universality and Perfection,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 125, 15589–15598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceramic Soc. (1)

H. Giesche, “Synthesis of monodispersed silica powders II. Controlled growth reaction and continuous production process,” J. Eur. Ceramic Soc. 14, 205–214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (5)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, “A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths,” Nature 394, 251–253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. EI-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417, 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabchak, M Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405, 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Bo, J. C. Sturn, and D. J. Norris, “On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals,” Nature 414, 289–293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. H. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Size-mode photonic band gap uidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, “A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,” Science 282, 1679–1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Li, L. E. Ladan, P. R. Herman, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, “Colloidal photonic crystal mirrors for high-resolving-power Fabry-Perots,” in Technical Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CTuDD2 (San Francisco, CA, May 16–24, 2004).

See, for example, J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A standard silica optical fiber of 125-μm diameter coated with silica microspheres: optical microscope image of a 3-cm coated fiber (a), and scanning electron microscope images at various magnifications (b – d).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscopy images of a bare (a) and a photonic crystal cladded (b) optical fiber of 125-νm diameter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normal incidence reflection spectrum produced by the colloidal photonic crystal cladded fibers as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental arrangement (top) for recording the transverse transmission spectrum of the photonic crystal cladded fiber and a representative transmission spectrum (bottom) normalized to that without insertion of the photonic crystal cladded fiber. SMF: single-mode fiber; PCF: photonic crystal fiber.

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