Abstract

This paper describes the design and the performance of a new high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for monitoring blood flow over an area of tissue. The new imager delivers high-resolution flow images (256x256 pixels) every 2 to 10 seconds, depending on the number of points in the acquired time-domain signal (32-512 points). This new imaging modality utilizes a digital integrating CMOS image sensor to detect Doppler signals in a plurality of points over the area illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements, which results in high-quality flow images. We made a series of measurements in vitro to test the performance of the system in terms of bandwidth, SNR, etc. Subsequently we give some examples of flow-related images measured on human skin, thus demonstrating the performance of the imager in vivo. The perspectives for future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

M.H. White, D.R. Lampe, F.C. Blaha, and I.A. Mack, �??Characterization of surface channel CCD image arrays at low light levels,�?? IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-9, 1-12 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

K. Wårdell, A. Jakobsson and G.E. Nilsson, �??Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering,�?? IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K.R. Forrester, J. Tulip, C. Leonard, C. Stewart, R.C. Bray, �??A laser speckle imaging technique for measuring tissue perfusion,�?? IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 2074-2084 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Eng.

T.J.H. Essex and P.O. Byrne, �??A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,�?? J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189-193 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J.D. Briers, G. Richards, and X.W. He, �??Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, F.F.M. de Mul, �??Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 300-302 (2002).

Optics Express

A. Serov, B. Steinacher, T. Lasser, �??Full-field laser Doppler perfusion imaging and monitoring with an intelligent CMOS camera,�?? Optics Express 13, 3681-3689 (2005), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-10-3681">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-10-3681</a>.
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Meas.

J.D. Briers, �??Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,�?? Physiol. Meas. 22, R35-R66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

G.V. Belcaro, U. Hoffman, A. Bollinger, and A.N. Nicolaides, Laser Doppler (Med-Orion Publishing Company, London, 1994).

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