Abstract

We propose a new approach to imaging astrometry, the uniaxial crystal interferometer (UCI). It uses the extremely sensitive dependence of the polarization phase change on the incident angle in uniaxial crystals. This is further combined with very sensitive polarization measurements. The polarization-coding is used for a fine-scale angle determination, and is simultaneously combined with a crude measurement through a standard telescope. Further, achromatic anamorphic prisms will amplify five to tenfold the resolution which is estimated to reach the scale ratio of large interferometers. Because the fine angular information is superimposed on the light at an early stage the optical system tolerances are relieved to the level of a standard low-weight optical imaging system. We also suggest solutions to make the system achromatic. Overall the system may cover sky segments of the order of fractions of a degree square and reach a resolution of tens of μas, even for faint stars.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Am. J. Phys.

Duarte, F., "Multiple-prism arrays in laser optics," Am. J. Phys. 68, 162-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astronomy & Astrophysics

Gai, M., et al., "Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras," Astronomy & Astrophysics 367, 362- 370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Loiseau, S. and S. Shaklan, "Optical design,modelling and tolerancing of a Fizeau interferometer dedicated to Astronomy," Astronomy & Astrophysics 117, 167-178 (1996).

Astronomy & Astrophysics Supplement Seri

Lindegren, L. and M.A.C. Perryman, "GAIA: Global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics," Astronomy & Astrophysics Supplement Series 116, 579-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E., et al., "Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space," Astronomy & Astrophysics supplement series 138,147-154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crystal research and technology

Li, G., et al., "Study on rapid growth of KH2PO4 and its characterization," Crystal research and technology 40, 217-221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Experimental Astronomy

Hog, E., C. Fabricius, and V.V. Makarov, "Astrometry from space: New design of the Gaia mission," Experimental Astronomy 7, 101-115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fusion technology

VanWonterghem, B., et al., "Recent performance results of the national ignition facility Beamlet demonstration project," Fusion technology 30, 642-647 (1996).

Widmayer, C., et al., "Producing National Ignition Facility (NIF)-quality beams on the Nova and Beamlet Lasers," Fusion technology 30, 464-470 (1996).

Hipparcos Venice 1997

Scholz, R.D. and U. Bastian. "Simulated dispersion fringes of an astrometric space interferometry mission," in Hipparcos Venice 97. 1997. Venice.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Measurement Science and technology

Gai, M., M.G. Lattanzi, and G. Mana, "A Fizeau interferometer for Astrometry in space: the metrological point of view," Measurement Science and technology 10, 1254-1260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

Wegner, P.J., et al. "Frequency converter development for the National Ignition Facility," in Proc. SPIE 3492, 392-405, Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk; Ed. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R., C. Barker, and A. Siegman, "Achromatic N-Prism beam expanders - optimal configurations II," Proc. SPIE 540, 104-109 (1985).

J. E. Baldwin, R.C.B., G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, J. Rogers, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, and C. D. Mackay, "Design and performance of COAST," Proc. SPIE 2200, 118-128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Progress in crystal growth and charcteri

Zaitseva, N. and L. Carman, "Rapid growth of KDP-type crystals," Progress in crystal growth and charcterization of materials 43, 1-118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Publications Of The Astronomical Society

Bradley, A., et al., "The Flight Hardware And Ground System For Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry," Publications Of The Astronomical Society Of The Pacific 103, 317-335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, G.F., et al., "Astrometry With Hubble-Space-Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Number-3 - Position-Mode Stability And Precision," Publications Of The Astronomical Society Of The Pacific 106, 327-336 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Unwin, S.C., et al., "Quasar astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission," Publications Of The Astronomical Society Of Australia 19, 5-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Revue De Metallurgie-Cahiers D Informati

Obeso, F., et al., "Novel on-line surface quality control for hot slabs in continuous casting," Revue De Metallurgie-Cahiers D Informations Techniques 99, 267-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solar Physics

Keller, C.U., "Recent progress in imaging polarimetry," Solar Physics 164, 243-252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

Keller, C.U., Charge Caching CMOS detector for Polarimetry (C3Po). 2005.

Sirat, G.Y., Vecht, Jacob and Malet, Yann, "Linear conoscopic holography," US. (1999).

Röser, S., Diva - Towards Microarcsecond Global Astrometry. (1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the system

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Focal planes of the UCI

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization coding - the drawing presents the case of an on-axis (θ = 0) crystal axis

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Anamorphic prisms

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Description of the system geometrical axis and crystal axis

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Achromatization system layout. The illustration presents a 4×3 waveplates assembly. In a real system a much larger number of waveplates will be used.

Equations (14)

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θ′ θ + θ x n eff ,
n eff = n o n e ( θ )
1 n e 2 ( θ ) = sin 2 ( θ ) n e 2 + cos 2 ( θ ) n o 2 .
( n e ( θ ) ) θ = n e 2 ( θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) 2 [ 1 n o 2 1 n e 2 ] .
( n e ( θ ) ) θ = Δ n n 0 sin ( 2 θ ) .
Δ ϕ ( θ ) = 2 π n o L λ 2 π n e ( θ ) L λ ,
Δ ϕ ( θ ) = Δ ϕ 0 + 2 π Δn L n 0 λ sin ( 2 θ ) θ x ,
Δ ϕ ( θ ) = 2 π Δn L TOTAL n 0 λ sin ( 2 θ ) θ x ,
UAR = 2 π Δn L TOTAL n 0 λ sin ( 2 θ )
p cycle = 2 π UAR * m
I j = A + B cos ( θ + j π 2 ) + δ I j
( δθ ) 2 ¯ = A 2 B 2 = 1 2 A = 2 N
I ( θ θ 0 ) = I 0 sin 2 ( πD ( θ θ 0 ) λ ) ( πD ( θ θ 0 ) λ ) 2
η = I ( θ θ 0 ) cos ( 2 π θ θ 0 cy ) I ( θ θ 0 )

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