Abstract

We present a new high speed full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument, the first full-field OCT system that is capable of in vivo ocular imaging. An isotropic resolution of ~ 1 μm is achieved thanks to the use of a xenon arc lamp source and relatively high numerical aperture microscope objectives in a Linnik-type interferometer. Full-field illumination allows the capture of two-dimensional en face images in parallel, using a fast CMOS camera as detector array. Each en face image is acquired in a 4 ms period, at a maximum repetition rate of 250 Hz. Detection sensitivity per en face image is 71 dB. Higher sensitivity can be achieved by image correlation and averaging, although frame rate is reduced. We present the first preliminary results of in vivo imaging in the anterior segment of the rat eye, which reveal some cellular features in the corneal layers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??Optical Coherence Tomography.,�?? Science 254, 1178�??1180 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,�?? Ophthalmol. 102, 217-229 (1995).
  3. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,�?? Archiv. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).
  4. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,�?? Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, �?? In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 1221�??1223 (1999).
  6. B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher,W. Drexler, A. Apolonski,W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, �??Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 1800�??1802 (2002).
  7. M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski and A. Kowalczyk, �?? Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1745�??1747 (2003).
  8. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, �??Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889</a>.
  9. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, �??Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
  10. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, �??Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183</a>.
  11. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, �??High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).
  12. M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker �??Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404</a>.
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, �??Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435</a>
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, �??En face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,�?? Opt. Lett. 23, 147�??149 (1998).
  15. C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. Lo, and Q. Zhou, �??Three-dimensional imaging of the human retina by high-speed optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2753�??2761 (2003), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753</a>
  16. S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, R. P. Salath, �??Optical coherence topography based on a two dimensional smart detector array,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 102-104 (2000).
  17. E Bordenave, E. Abraham, G. Jonusauskas, N. Tsurumachi, J. Oberl, C. Rullire, P.E. Minot, M. Lassgues, and J.E. Surlve Bazeille, �??Wide-field optical coherence tomography: imaging of biological tissues,�?? App. Opt. 41, 2059-2064 (2002).
  18. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, �??A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Comm. 185, 57-64 (2000).
  19. L. Vabre, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, �??Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 530�??532 (2002).
  20. A. Dubois, L. Vabre, A. C. Boccara, and E. Beaurepaire, �??High-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography with a Linnik microscope,�?? Appl. Opt. 41, 805�??812 (2002).
  21. A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and A. C. Boccara, �??Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,�?? Appl. Opt. 43, 2874�??2883 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Dubois, G. Moneron, K. Grieve, and A. C. Boccara, �??Three-dimensional cellular-level imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography,�?? Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1227�??1234 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Perea-Gomez, A. Camus, A. Moreau, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, A. Dubois, C. Cibert, and J. Collignon, �??Initiation of Gastrulation in the Mouse Embryo Is Preceded by an Apparent Shift in the Orientation of the Anterior-Posterior Axis,�?? Current Biology 14:3, 197�??207 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A. C. Boccara, and J.-F. Le Gargasson, �??Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,�?? Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126�??4131 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Moneron, A. C. Boccara, and A. Dubois, �??Stroboscopic Ultrahigh-Resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 30, 1351�??1353 (2005).
  26. K. Grieve, G. Moneron, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, �??Ultrahigh resolution ex vivo ocular imaging using ultrashort acquisition time en face optical coherence tomography,�?? J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7: 368-373 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, �??Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: Implications for intraocular ranging,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144�??151 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-1993. New York: American National Standards Institute (1993).
  29. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Broadband Incoherent Optical Radiation (0.38 to 3 m), Health Phys. 73, 539�??554 (1997).
  30. <a href= "http://www.heidelbergengineering.de/">http://www.heidelbergengineering.de/</a>
  31. S. Martinez, S. Macknik and D. H. Hubel, �??The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,�?? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5:229, (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, �??Tracking optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2139�??2141 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Hermann, E. J. Fernndez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto,and P. Artal, �??Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, �??Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,�?? Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4792">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4792</a>
    [CrossRef]

App. Opt. (1)

E Bordenave, E. Abraham, G. Jonusauskas, N. Tsurumachi, J. Oberl, C. Rullire, P.E. Minot, M. Lassgues, and J.E. Surlve Bazeille, �??Wide-field optical coherence tomography: imaging of biological tissues,�?? App. Opt. 41, 2059-2064 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Archiv. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??Optical coherence tomography of the human retina,�?? Archiv. Ophthalmol. 113, 325-332 (1995).

Current Biology (1)

A. Perea-Gomez, A. Camus, A. Moreau, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, A. Dubois, C. Cibert, and J. Collignon, �??Initiation of Gastrulation in the Mouse Embryo Is Preceded by an Apparent Shift in the Orientation of the Anterior-Posterior Axis,�?? Current Biology 14:3, 197�??207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Health Phys. (1)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Broadband Incoherent Optical Radiation (0.38 to 3 m), Health Phys. 73, 539�??554 (1997).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A. C. Boccara, and J.-F. Le Gargasson, �??Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,�?? Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126�??4131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, �??Dispersion effects in partial coherence interferometry: Implications for intraocular ranging,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144�??151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Grieve, G. Moneron, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, �??Ultrahigh resolution ex vivo ocular imaging using ultrashort acquisition time en face optical coherence tomography,�?? J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7: 368-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature Medicine (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,�?? Nature Medicine 7, 502-507 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature Reviews Neuroscience (1)

S. Martinez, S. Macknik and D. H. Hubel, �??The role of fixational eye movements in visual perception,�?? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5:229, (2004)
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. (1)

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,�?? Ophthalmol. 102, 217-229 (1995).

Opt. Comm. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, E. Moreno-Barriuso, R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, �??A thermal light source technique for optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Comm. 185, 57-64 (2000).

Opt. Express (7)

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. Lo, and Q. Zhou, �??Three-dimensional imaging of the human retina by high-speed optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2753�??2761 (2003), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2753</a>

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, �??Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183</a>.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, �??High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker �??Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404</a>.
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, �??Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435</a>
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, �??Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889</a>.

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, �??Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,�?? Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4792">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4792</a>
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, L. A. Paunescu, S. Beaton, and J. S. Schuman, �??Tracking optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2139�??2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernndez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto,and P. Artal, �??Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Moneron, A. C. Boccara, and A. Dubois, �??Stroboscopic Ultrahigh-Resolution Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 30, 1351�??1353 (2005).

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, �??Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, �?? In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 1221�??1223 (1999).

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher,W. Drexler, A. Apolonski,W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, �??Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 1800�??1802 (2002).

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski and A. Kowalczyk, �?? Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1745�??1747 (2003).

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, �??En face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation,�?? Opt. Lett. 23, 147�??149 (1998).

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, R. P. Salath, �??Optical coherence topography based on a two dimensional smart detector array,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 102-104 (2000).

L. Vabre, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, �??Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 530�??532 (2002).

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, K. Grieve, and A. C. Boccara, �??Three-dimensional cellular-level imaging using full-field optical coherence tomography,�?? Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1227�??1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??Optical Coherence Tomography.,�?? Science 254, 1178�??1180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-1993. New York: American National Standards Institute (1993).

<a href= "http://www.heidelbergengineering.de/">http://www.heidelbergengineering.de/</a>

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics