Abstract

A low-cost, versatile optical coupling structure featuring a monolithic integration of a polymeric waveguide, beam ducts, and end-reflectors has been designed, prototyped, and demonstrated to be capable of sustaining high misalignment errors whilst maintaining a reasonable coupling efficiency. The soft lithography fabrication process of this interconnection design allows for significant advantages over traditional designs in terms of misalignment tolerance, manufacture cost and speed, as well as 3-D integration capability.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. McArdle, M. Naruse, and M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipelined processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 250–260 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Ishii, S. Koike, Y. Arai, and Y. Ando, “SMT-compatible optical-I/O chip packaging for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conference, 2001, 870–875.
  3. D. Krabe and W. Scheel, “Optical interconnection by hot embossing for module and PCB technology-The EOCB approach,” in Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conf, 1999, 1164–1166.
  4. R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and F. Mederer, “Polymer optical waveguides integrated in printed circuit boards,” in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2001, 302–303.
  6. H. Schroder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCB polymers and adhesives in microelectronics and photonics,” in Proc. 1st Int. IEEE Conf, Oct. 2001, 337–343.
  7. M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.
  8. E. Griese, “A high-performance hybrid electrical-optical interconnection technology for high-speed electronic systems,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Package. 24, 373–383 (2001)
  9. Younan Xia and George M. Whitesides, “SOFT LITHOGRAPHY,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, J. Scheuer, and A. Yariv, “Soft lithography replication of polymeric microring optical resonators,” Opt. Express 11, 2452–2458 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract. cfm?URI=OPEX-11-20-2452
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (3)

E. Griese, “A high-performance hybrid electrical-optical interconnection technology for high-speed electronic systems,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Package. 24, 373–383 (2001)

S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and F. Mederer, “Polymer optical waveguides integrated in printed circuit boards,” in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2001, 302–303.

H. Schroder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCB polymers and adhesives in microelectronics and photonics,” in Proc. 1st Int. IEEE Conf, Oct. 2001, 337–343.

2000 (2)

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. McArdle, M. Naruse, and M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipelined processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 250–260 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Younan Xia and George M. Whitesides, “SOFT LITHOGRAPHY,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Ando, Y.

Y. Ishii, S. Koike, Y. Arai, and Y. Ando, “SMT-compatible optical-I/O chip packaging for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conference, 2001, 870–875.

Arai, Y.

Y. Ishii, S. Koike, Y. Arai, and Y. Ando, “SMT-compatible optical-I/O chip packaging for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conference, 2001, 870–875.

Bauer, J.

H. Schroder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCB polymers and adhesives in microelectronics and photonics,” in Proc. 1st Int. IEEE Conf, Oct. 2001, 337–343.

Bihari, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Bristow, J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.S.

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.H.

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Ebling, F.

H. Schroder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCB polymers and adhesives in microelectronics and photonics,” in Proc. 1st Int. IEEE Conf, Oct. 2001, 337–343.

Griese, E.

E. Griese, “A high-performance hybrid electrical-optical interconnection technology for high-speed electronic systems,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Package. 24, 373–383 (2001)

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Ha, S.-W.

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Ishii, Y.

Y. Ishii, S. Koike, Y. Arai, and Y. Ando, “SMT-compatible optical-I/O chip packaging for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conference, 2001, 870–875.

Ishikawa, M.

N. McArdle, M. Naruse, and M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipelined processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 250–260 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Jager, R.

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Kang, S.

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Kicherer, M.

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Koike, S.

Y. Ishii, S. Koike, Y. Arai, and Y. Ando, “SMT-compatible optical-I/O chip packaging for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conference, 2001, 870–875.

Krabe, D.

D. Krabe and W. Scheel, “Optical interconnection by hot embossing for module and PCB technology-The EOCB approach,” in Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conf, 1999, 1164–1166.

Lehmacher, S.

S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and F. Mederer, “Polymer optical waveguides integrated in printed circuit boards,” in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2001, 302–303.

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Lin, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

McArdle, N.

N. McArdle, M. Naruse, and M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipelined processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 250–260 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Mederer, F.

S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and F. Mederer, “Polymer optical waveguides integrated in printed circuit boards,” in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2001, 302–303.

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Naruse, M.

N. McArdle, M. Naruse, and M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipelined processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 250–260 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and F. Mederer, “Polymer optical waveguides integrated in printed circuit boards,” in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2001, 302–303.

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Paloczi, G. T.

Park, H.-H.

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Picor, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Rhee, B.-H.

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Rho, B.S.

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Scheel, W.

H. Schroder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCB polymers and adhesives in microelectronics and photonics,” in Proc. 1st Int. IEEE Conf, Oct. 2001, 337–343.

D. Krabe and W. Scheel, “Optical interconnection by hot embossing for module and PCB technology-The EOCB approach,” in Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conf, 1999, 1164–1166.

Scheuer, J.

Schroder, H.

H. Schroder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCB polymers and adhesives in microelectronics and photonics,” in Proc. 1st Int. IEEE Conf, Oct. 2001, 337–343.

Tang, S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Unold, H.

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Whitesides, George M.

Younan Xia and George M. Whitesides, “SOFT LITHOGRAPHY,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Wichman, R.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Wu, L

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Xia, Younan

Younan Xia and George M. Whitesides, “SOFT LITHOGRAPHY,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

Younan Xia and George M. Whitesides, “SOFT LITHOGRAPHY,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153–184 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B.S. Rho, M.H. Cho, H.S. Cho, S. Kang, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, and B.-H. Rhee, “Low-crosstalk and high-efficiency optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods,” Electron. Lett. 40, 730–732 (2004)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

N. McArdle, M. Naruse, and M. Ishikawa, “Optoelectronic parallel computing using optically interconnected pipelined processing arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 5, 250–260 (1999)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Package. (1)

E. Griese, “A high-performance hybrid electrical-optical interconnection technology for high-speed electronic systems,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Package. 24, 373–383 (2001)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L Wu, S. Tang, R. Wichman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects,” in Proc. IEEE,  88, 780–793 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and F. Mederer, “Polymer optical waveguides integrated in printed circuit boards,” in Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2001, 302–303.

H. Schroder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCB polymers and adhesives in microelectronics and photonics,” in Proc. 1st Int. IEEE Conf, Oct. 2001, 337–343.

M. Kicherer, F. Mederer, R. Jager, H. Unold, K. J. Ebeling, S. Lehmacher, A. Neyer, and E. Griese, “Data transmission at 3-Gbit/s over intraboard polymer waveguides with GaAs VCSELs,” in Proc. 26th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC’01),  3, 2000, 289–290.

Y. Ishii, S. Koike, Y. Arai, and Y. Ando, “SMT-compatible optical-I/O chip packaging for chip-level optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conference, 2001, 870–875.

D. Krabe and W. Scheel, “Optical interconnection by hot embossing for module and PCB technology-The EOCB approach,” in Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Technology Conf, 1999, 1164–1166.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the proposed soft-lithography-based optical interconnection on a conventional PCB.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the proposed design (type-III) in comparison with two previous designs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Coupling efficiency as a function of beam duct length for differing dimensions of waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ray tracing schematic of a portion of the interconnection structure with varying beam duct lengths of 3.5mm, 6mm, and 7.5mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Coupling efficiency as a function of misalignment error for three interconnection architectures.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Top: Photo of a fabricated uncladded prototype of the proposed polymeric coupling structure for an optical interconnection with a built-in beam duct, fabricated by soft lithography. It is placed on a conventional PCB; Center: A photo of the fabricated prototype in action, with the coupling turning the VCSEL output beam twice by 90° and casting the resulting beam onto a screen. This demonstrates beam folding and transmission at a low loss; Bottom: Photo of the prototype in action, guiding the beam in successfully traversing a curved path on the PCB at a low loss.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated change in light pulses due to time delay of varying propagation modes.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Specifications of optical components used in ZEMAX® ray trace and time delay simulations

Equations (2)

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P ( t ) = i ω ( θ i ) p [ t d ( θ i ) ]
ω ( θ i ) = A e 2 θ i 2 α 2

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