Abstract

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an optical interferometric technique developed mainly for in vivo imaging of the eye and biological tissues. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of OCT for non-invasive examination of museum paintings. Two en-face scanning OCT systems operating at 850 nm and 1300 nm were used to produce B-scan and C-scan images at typical working distances of 2 cm. The 3D images produced by the OCT systems show not only the structure of the varnish layer but also the paint layers and underdrawings (preparatory drawings under the paint layers). The highest ever resolution and dynamic range images of underdrawings are presented and for the first time it is possible to find out non-invasively on which layer the underdrawings were drawn.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. N. Khandekar, �??Preparation of cross-sections from easel paintings,�?? Reviews in Conservation 4, 52-64 (2003).
  2. A. Byrne, �??The structure beneath,�?? in The articulate surface: dialogues on paintings between conservators, curators and art historians, Humanities Research Centre monograph series, No. 10. S. Wallace, J. Macnaughtan and J. Parvey, ed. (Australian National University. Humanities Research Centre, 1996).
  3. J. Padfield, D. Saunders, J. Cupitt, R. Atkinson, �??Improvements in the acquisition and processing of X-ray images of paintings,�?? The National Gallery Technical Bulletin 23, 62-75 (2002).
  4. J.R.J van Asperen de Boer, �??Reflectography of paintings using an infra-red vidicon television system,�?? Studies in Conservation 14, 96�??118 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Bertani, M. Cetica, G. Molesini, �??Holographic tests on the Ghiberti panel, The Life of Joseph,�?? Studies in Conservation 27, 61-64 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Paoletti and G. Schirripa Spagnolo, �??Automated digital speckle pattern interferometry contouring in artwork surface inspection,�?? Opt. Eng. 32, 1348-1353 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, �??The role of attachments in the degradation and strain distribution of canvas paintings,�?? in Traditions and Innovation: Advances in Conservation, (International Institute of Conservation Melbourne Congress October 2000), pp. 212-220.
  8. D. Ambrosini and D. Paoletti, �??Holographic and speckle methods for the analysis of panel paintings. Developments since the early 1970s,�?? Reviews in Conservation 5, 38-48 (2005).
  9. K. Polikreti, A. Othonos, C. Christofides, �??Optical characterization of varnish films by spectroscopic ellipsometry for application in artwork conservation,�?? Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 69-74 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized light, (Amsterdam: North Holland, 1977).
  11. P. Boher and J. L. Stehle, �??Atomic scale characterization of semiconductors by in-situ real time spectroscopic ellipsometry,�?? Thin Solid Film 318, 120-133 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Rajadhyaksha, R. Anderson and R. Webb, �??Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,�?? Appl. Opt. 38, 2105-2115 (1999).
  13. M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C. C. Yang, �??The use of optical coherence tomography for monitoring the subsurface morphologies of archaic jades,�?? Archaeometry 46, 171-182 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Liang, M. Gomez Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, D. Jackson, C. Pannell, J. Pedro, D. Saunders, A. Podoleanu, �??Application of OCT to examination of easel paintings,�?? Second European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, Proc. SPIE 5502, 378-381 (2004).
  15. P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, �??The application of optical coherence tomography to non-destructive examination of museum objects,�?? Studies in Conservation 49, 107-114 (2004).
  16. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, �??Optical coherence tomography,�?? Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Drexler, �??Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson and F. Fitzke, �??Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12- (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Gh. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, D. A. Jackson and S. Dunne, �??Three dimensional OCT images from retina and skin,�?? Opt. Express 7, 292-298, (2000).
  20. B. R. Masters, �??Three-dimensional confocal microscopy of the human optic nerve in vivo,�?? Opt. Express 3, 356-359 (1998).
  21. A. Gh.Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, �??Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1789-1791, 1996.
  22. J. H. Townsend, �??The Refractive Index of 19th-Century Paint Media: A Preliminary Study,�?? ICOM Committee for Conservation, Working Group 16, Vol. II, 586, 1993.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Archaeometry (1)

M.-L. Yang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, C. C. Yang, �??The use of optical coherence tomography for monitoring the subsurface morphologies of archaic jades,�?? Archaeometry 46, 171-182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ICOM Committee for Conservation (1)

J. H. Townsend, �??The Refractive Index of 19th-Century Paint Media: A Preliminary Study,�?? ICOM Committee for Conservation, Working Group 16, Vol. II, 586, 1993.

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

W. Drexler, �??Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson and F. Fitzke, �??Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry,�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12- (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Paoletti and G. Schirripa Spagnolo, �??Automated digital speckle pattern interferometry contouring in artwork surface inspection,�?? Opt. Eng. 32, 1348-1353 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Liang, M. Gomez Cid, R. Cucu, G. Dobre, D. Jackson, C. Pannell, J. Pedro, D. Saunders, A. Podoleanu, �??Application of OCT to examination of easel paintings,�?? Second European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, Proc. SPIE 5502, 378-381 (2004).

Reviews in Conservation (2)

N. Khandekar, �??Preparation of cross-sections from easel paintings,�?? Reviews in Conservation 4, 52-64 (2003).

D. Ambrosini and D. Paoletti, �??Holographic and speckle methods for the analysis of panel paintings. Developments since the early 1970s,�?? Reviews in Conservation 5, 38-48 (2005).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, �??Optical coherence tomography,�?? Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Studies in Conservation (3)

J.R.J van Asperen de Boer, �??Reflectography of paintings using an infra-red vidicon television system,�?? Studies in Conservation 14, 96�??118 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. Bertani, M. Cetica, G. Molesini, �??Holographic tests on the Ghiberti panel, The Life of Joseph,�?? Studies in Conservation 27, 61-64 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, B. Rouba, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, �??The application of optical coherence tomography to non-destructive examination of museum objects,�?? Studies in Conservation 49, 107-114 (2004).

The articulate surface: dialogues (1)

A. Byrne, �??The structure beneath,�?? in The articulate surface: dialogues on paintings between conservators, curators and art historians, Humanities Research Centre monograph series, No. 10. S. Wallace, J. Macnaughtan and J. Parvey, ed. (Australian National University. Humanities Research Centre, 1996).

The National Gallery Technical Bulletin (1)

J. Padfield, D. Saunders, J. Cupitt, R. Atkinson, �??Improvements in the acquisition and processing of X-ray images of paintings,�?? The National Gallery Technical Bulletin 23, 62-75 (2002).

Thin Solid Film (1)

P. Boher and J. L. Stehle, �??Atomic scale characterization of semiconductors by in-situ real time spectroscopic ellipsometry,�?? Thin Solid Film 318, 120-133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tradit. and Innov.: Advances in Conserv. (1)

C. R. T. Young and R. Hibberd, �??The role of attachments in the degradation and strain distribution of canvas paintings,�?? in Traditions and Innovation: Advances in Conservation, (International Institute of Conservation Melbourne Congress October 2000), pp. 212-220.

Other (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized light, (Amsterdam: North Holland, 1977).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (2524 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics