## Abstract

We have analyzed the combined effect of pump-intensity noise and reflections on the performance of counter-pumped Raman amplified systems. The required level of pump-intensity noise was evaluated for negligible enhancement of multi-path interference (MPI). We have also investigated the enhancement of pump-to-signal crosstalk caused by the reflections occurring within transmission fiber. We found that a high reflection (larger than -20 dB) within effective length of fiber could increase the effect of pump-to-signal crosstalk even for the counter-pumped Raman amplifiers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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### Equations (3)

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(1)
$$\mathit{MPI}\left({L}_{\mathit{eff}}\right)={\left(\frac{S}{\frac{\mathrm{ln}\left({G}_{R\_\mathit{co}}{G}_{R\_\mathit{ct}}\right)}{{\alpha}_{s}{L}_{\mathit{eff}}}-2}\right)}^{2}\left[\left({G}_{R\_\mathit{co}}{G}_{R\_\mathit{ct}}\right){e}^{-2{\alpha}_{s}{L}_{\mathit{eff}}}-1-\left(\mathrm{ln}\left({G}_{R\_\mathit{co}}{G}_{R\_\mathit{ct}}\right)-2{\alpha}_{s}{L}_{\mathit{eff}}\right)\right]$$
(2)
$${r}_{s}={r}_{p}{\mathrm{ln}}^{2}\left({G}_{R}\right)\frac{{\left(\frac{{V}_{s}}{{L}_{\mathit{eff}}}\right)}^{2}}{{\left({\alpha}_{p}{V}_{s}\right)}^{2}+{\left(4\mathit{\pi f}\right)}^{2}}\left(1-2{e}^{-{\alpha}_{p}L}\mathrm{cos}\left(4\mathit{\pi fT}\right)+{e}^{-2{\alpha}_{p}L}\right)$$
(3)
$$\phantom{\rule{.8em}{0ex}}+{r}_{p}{\mathrm{ln}}^{2}\left({G}_{R}\right)\frac{{\left(\frac{{V}_{s}}{{L}_{\mathit{eff}}}\right)}^{2}}{{\left({\alpha}_{p}{V}_{s}\right)}^{2}+{\left(2\mathit{\pi f}{V}_{s}D\Delta \lambda \right)}^{2}}{R}^{2}{e}^{-2{\alpha}_{p}\left(L-z\text{'}\right)}\left(1-2{e}^{-{\alpha}_{p}\left(L-z\text{'}\right)}\mathrm{cos}\left(2\mathit{\pi f}{V}_{s}D\left(T-t\text{'}\right)\right)+{e}^{-2{\alpha}_{p}\left(L-z\text{'}\right)}\right)$$