Abstract

This report presents an investigation of composite fiber Raman amplifiers (i.e., a distributed fiber Raman amplifier followed by a discrete fiber Raman amplifier) with incoherent pumping, compared to conventional coherent pumping. It is shown that a flatter gain, noise figure and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) over 100-nm bandwidth can be achieved simultaneously by using two counter-incoherent pumps, compared to using six counter-coherent pumps. Moreover, it is found that a further improvement in gain, noise figure and OSNR flatness can be obtained in composite fiber Raman amplifiers with bi-directional incoherent pumping. The flatness of both gain and OSNR with a ripple of 1 dB is predicted by using one co- incoherent pump and one counter- incoherent pump.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Mollenauer, J. Gordon, and M. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 157–173 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548–559 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Bromage, “Raman amplification for fiber communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 79–93 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Perlin and G. Winful, “Optimal design of flat gain wide band fiber Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 250–254 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Perlin and G. Winful, “On distributed Raman amplification for ultrabroad-band long-haul WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 409–416 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design for ultra-broad band amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3446–3455 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kung, C. Chang, J. Dung, and S. Chi, “Four-wave mixing between pump and signal in a distributed Raman amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1164–1170 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Bouteiller, L. Leng, and C. Headley, “Pump-pump four-wave mixing in distributed Raman amplified systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 723–732 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, “Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209–211 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Zhou, M. Birk, and S. Woodward, “Pump-noise induced FWM effect and its reduction in a distributed Raman fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1686–1688 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Pasquale and F. Meli, “New Raman pump module for reducing pump-signal four-wave-mixing interaction in co-pumped distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1742–1748 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, “Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81–83 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Pasquale, “Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1286–1288 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, “Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667–669 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.
  16. X. Zhou and M. Birk, “New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 912–914 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Kado, Y. Emori, and S. Namiki, “Gain and noise tilt control in multi-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier,” OFC 2002, pp.62–63, Paper TuJ4.
  18. I. Mandelbaum and M. Bolshtyansky, “Raman amplifier model in single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1704–1706 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Liu and B. Lee, “A fast and stable method for Raman amplifier propagation equations,” Opt. Express 11, 2163–2176 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, L. Leng, M. Lines, and H. Smith, “Scaling of the Raman gain coefficient: applications to Germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1652–1662 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with incoherent pumping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1175–1177 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with incoherent pumping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1175–1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

J. Bromage, “Raman amplification for fiber communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 79–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bouteiller, L. Leng, and C. Headley, “Pump-pump four-wave mixing in distributed Raman amplified systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 723–732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, “Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Pasquale, “Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1286–1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and M. Birk, “New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 912–914 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (9)

I. Mandelbaum and M. Bolshtyansky, “Raman amplifier model in single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1704–1706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu and B. Lee, “A fast and stable method for Raman amplifier propagation equations,” Opt. Express 11, 2163–2176 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, L. Leng, M. Lines, and H. Smith, “Scaling of the Raman gain coefficient: applications to Germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1652–1662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, “Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667–669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, “Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu and B. Lee, “Optimal design for ultra-broad band amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3446–3455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kung, C. Chang, J. Dung, and S. Chi, “Four-wave mixing between pump and signal in a distributed Raman amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1164–1170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Pasquale and F. Meli, “New Raman pump module for reducing pump-signal four-wave-mixing interaction in co-pumped distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1742–1748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

X. Zhou, M. Birk, and S. Woodward, “Pump-noise induced FWM effect and its reduction in a distributed Raman fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1686–1688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Perlin and G. Winful, “Optimal design of flat gain wide band fiber Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 250–254 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Perlin and G. Winful, “On distributed Raman amplification for ultrabroad-band long-haul WDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 409–416 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. Mollenauer, J. Gordon, and M. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Azimi, M.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Birk, M.

X. Zhou and M. Birk, “New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 912–914 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Birk, and S. Woodward, “Pump-noise induced FWM effect and its reduction in a distributed Raman fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1686–1688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bolognini, G.

S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, “Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Pasquale, “Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1286–1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolshtyansky, M.

I. Mandelbaum and M. Bolshtyansky, “Raman amplifier model in single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1704–1706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouteiller, J.

Bromage, J.

J. Bromage, “Raman amplification for fiber communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 79–93 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, “Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667–669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

Chen, C.

W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, “Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Chi, S.

Dung, J.

Emori, Y.

S. Kado, Y. Emori, and S. Namiki, “Gain and noise tilt control in multi-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier,” OFC 2002, pp.62–63, Paper TuJ4.

Faralli, S.

S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, “Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

L. Mollenauer, J. Gordon, and M. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Han, B.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Headley, C.

J. Bouteiller, L. Leng, and C. Headley, “Pump-pump four-wave mixing in distributed Raman amplified systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 723–732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, “Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667–669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ho, M.

W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, “Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M.

M. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Mollenauer, J. Gordon, and M. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Kado, S.

S. Kado, Y. Emori, and S. Namiki, “Gain and noise tilt control in multi-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier,” OFC 2002, pp.62–63, Paper TuJ4.

Knopp, L.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Kung, T.

Lee, B.

Lee, H.

W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, “Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leng, L.

Lines, M.

Liu, X.

Lu, C.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Mandelbaum, I.

I. Mandelbaum and M. Bolshtyansky, “Raman amplifier model in single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1704–1706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meli, F.

F. Pasquale and F. Meli, “New Raman pump module for reducing pump-signal four-wave-mixing interaction in co-pumped distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1742–1748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mermelstein, M.

J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, “Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667–669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L.

L. Mollenauer, J. Gordon, and M. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

S. Kado, Y. Emori, and S. Namiki, “Gain and noise tilt control in multi-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier,” OFC 2002, pp.62–63, Paper TuJ4.

Nelson, L.

J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, “Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667–669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pasquale, F.

S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, “Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Pasquale, “Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1286–1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Pasquale and F. Meli, “New Raman pump module for reducing pump-signal four-wave-mixing interaction in co-pumped distributed Raman amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1742–1748 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, V.

Rodes, G.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Rottwitt, K.

Sacchi, G.

S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, “Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Smith, H.

Stentz, A.

Sugliani, S.

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Pasquale, “Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1286–1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, “Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vakhshoori, D.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Vote, S.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Wang, P.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Winful, G.

Winzer, P.

J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, “Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667–669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.

W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, “Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, S.

X. Zhou, M. Birk, and S. Woodward, “Pump-noise induced FWM effect and its reduction in a distributed Raman fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1686–1688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with incoherent pumping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1175–1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with incoherent pumping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1175–1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with incoherent pumping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1175–1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou and M. Birk, “New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 912–914 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Birk, and S. Woodward, “Pump-noise induced FWM effect and its reduction in a distributed Raman fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1686–1688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Mollenauer, J. Gordon, and M. Islam, “Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 157–173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (8)

S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, “Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81–83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Pasquale, “Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1286–1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, “Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667–669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, “Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Birk, and S. Woodward, “Pump-noise induced FWM effect and its reduction in a distributed Raman fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1686–1688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and M. Birk, “New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 912–914 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mandelbaum and M. Bolshtyansky, “Raman amplifier model in single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1704–1706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhang, “Distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with incoherent pumping,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1175–1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

OFC (2)

S. Kado, Y. Emori, and S. Namiki, “Gain and noise tilt control in multi-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier,” OFC 2002, pp.62–63, Paper TuJ4.

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, “Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,” OFC2003, Paper PD47; and http://www.ahuracorp.com.

Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optimal pump wavelengths and pump power for (a) distributed FRA and (b) discrete FRA for the composite FRA with six counter-coherent pumps

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optimal pump wavelengths, FWHM, and power for (a) one incoherent pump and (b) two incoherent pumps (Distributed FRA: red, and discrete FRA: black) for the composite FRA with one counter- incoherent pump or two counter-incoherent pumps.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Total Raman gain, (b) total noise figure, and (c) OSNR for the composite fiber FRA with one counter-incoherent pump, or two counter- incoherent pumps or six counter- coherent pumps.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Distributed on-off gain, (b) output ASE power from the distributed FRAs, and (c) total output ASE power. Others are the same as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optimal pump parameters for (a) the distributed FRA and (b) the discrete FRA with a co- incoherent pump and a counter- incoherent pump.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Raman gain and (b) noise figure from the distributed and discrete FRAs; (c) OSNR at the output of the distributed and discrete FRAs; with pumps shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Raman gain, (b) noise figure and (c) OSNR for the pump power distributions of 59%, 62% and 73%. Others are the same as in Fig. 6.

Metrics