Abstract

This report presents an investigation of composite fiber Raman amplifiers (i.e., a distributed fiber Raman amplifier followed by a discrete fiber Raman amplifier) with in-coherent pumping, compared to conventional coherent pumping. It is shown that a flatter gain, noise figure and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) over 100-nm bandwidth can be achieved simultaneously by using two counter-incoherent pumps, compared to using six counter-coherent pumps. Moreover, it is found that a further improvement in gain, noise figure and OSNR flatness can be obtained in composite fiber Raman amplifiers with bi-directional incoherent pumping. The flatness of both gain and OSNR with a ripple of 1 dB is predicted by using one co-incoherent pump and one counter-incoherent pump.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. L. Mollenauer, J. Gordon, and M. Islam, �??Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 157-173 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Islam, �??Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548-559 (2002).
  3. J. Bromage, �??Raman amplification for fiber communication systems,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 79-93(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Perlin, G. Winful, �??Optimal design of flat gain wide band fiber Raman amplifiers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 250-254 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Perlin, and G. Winful, �??On distributed Raman amplification for ultrabroad-band long-haul WDM systems,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 409-416 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Liu, and B. Lee, �??Optimal design for ultra-broad band amplifiers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3446-3455 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kung, C. Chang, J. Dung, and S. Chi, �??Four-wave mixing between pump and signal in a distributed Raman amplifier,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1164-1170 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Bouteiller, L. Leng, and C. Headley, �??Pump�??pump four-wave mixing in distributed Raman amplified systems,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 723-732 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, �??Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209-211 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Zhou, M. Birk, and S. Woodward, �??Pump-noise induced FWM effect and its reduction in a distributed Raman fiber amplifiers,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1686-1688 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Pasquale and F. Meli, �??New Raman pump module for reducing pump�??signal four-wave-mixing interaction in co-pumped distributed Raman amplifiers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1742-1748 (2003).
  12. S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, �??Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81-83 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Pasquale, �??Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, �??Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667-669 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, �??Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,�?? OFC 2003, Paper PD47.
  16. X. Zhou, and M. Birk, �??New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 912-914 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Kado, Y. Emori, and S. Namiki, �??Gain and noise tilt control in multi-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier,�?? OFC 2002, pp.62-63, Paper TuJ4.
  18. I. Mandelbaum, and M. Bolshtyansky, �??Raman amplifier model in single-mode optical fiber,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1704-1706 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Liu, and B. Lee, �??A fast and stable method for Raman amplifier propagation equations,�?? Opt. Express 11, 2163- 2176 (2003).
  20. K. Rottwitt, A. Stentz, L. Leng, M. Lines, and H. Smith, �??Scaling of the Raman gain coefficient: applications to Germanosilicate fibers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1652-1662 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhang, �??Distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with incoherent pumping,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1175-1177 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Mollenauer, J. Gordon, and M. Islam, �??Soliton propagation in long fibers with periodically compensated loss,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 157-173 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Islam, �??Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548-559 (2002).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (8)

T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhang, �??Distributed fiber Raman amplifiers with incoherent pumping,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1175-1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugliani, G. Sacchi, G. Bolognini, S. Faralli, and F. Pasquale, �??Effective suppression of penalties induced by parametric nonlinear interaction in distributed Raman amplifiers based on NZ-DS fibers,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 81-83 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, and F. Pasquale, �??Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bromage, P. Winzer, L. Nelson, M. Mermelstein, and C. Headley, �??Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 667-669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Wong, C. Chen, M. Ho, and H. Lee, �??Phase-matched four-wave mixing between pumps and signals in a co-pumped Raman amplifier,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 209-211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Birk, and S. Woodward, �??Pump-noise induced FWM effect and its reduction in a distributed Raman fiber amplifiers,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1686-1688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, and M. Birk, �??New design method for a WDM system employing broad-band Raman amplification,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 912-914 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mandelbaum, and M. Bolshtyansky, �??Raman amplifier model in single-mode optical fiber,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 1704-1706 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

OFC 2002 (1)

S. Kado, Y. Emori, and S. Namiki, �??Gain and noise tilt control in multi-wavelength bi-directionally pumped Raman amplifier,�?? OFC 2002, pp.62-63, Paper TuJ4.

OFC 2003 (1)

D. Vakhshoori, M. Azimi, P. Chen, B. Han, M. Jiang, L. Knopp, C. Lu, Y. Shen, G. Rodes, S. Vote, P. Wang, and X. Zhu, �??Raman amplification using high-power incoherent semiconductor pump sources,�?? OFC 2003, Paper PD47.

Opt. Express (1)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics