Abstract

An optical waveguide amplifier fabricated on erbium-ytterbium-doped phosphate glass by direct femtosecond laser writing is demonstrated. The waveguides are manufactured using 1040-nm radiation from a diode-pumped cavity-dumped Yb:KYW oscillator, operating at a 885 kHz repetition rate, with a 350 fs pulse duration. Peak internal gain of 9.2 dB is obtained at 1535 nm, with a minimum internal gain of 5.2 dB at 1565 nm. Relatively low insertion losses of 1.9 dB enable for the first time an appreciable net gain in the full C-band of optical communications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, A. Tuennermann, �??Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,�?? Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lidgard, J.R. Simpson, and P.C. Becker, �??Output saturation characteristics of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 975 nm,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2607-2609 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, �??Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 µm wavelength by femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator,�?? Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, �??Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

OFC 2001 (2)

C.M. McIntosh, J.-M.P. Delavaux, G.C. Wilson, C. Hullin, B. Neyret, J. Philipsen, C. Cassagnettes, D. Barbier, �??High output power erbium doped waveguide amplifier for QAM distribution,�?? in Proceedings of OSA Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2001), pp. WDD5-1 �?? WDD5-3 vol.3.

M.R. Lange, E. Bryant, M.J. Myers, J.D. Myers, R. Wu, and C.R. Hardy, �??High Gain Short Length Phosphate Glass Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Material,�?? in Proceedings of OSA Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC 2001), pp. WDD22-1 �?? WDD22-3 vol.3.

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

A. Killi, A. Steinmann, J. Dorring, U. Morgner, M.J. Lederer, D. Kopf, and C. Fallnich, �??High-peak-power pulses from a cavity-dumped Yb:KY(WO4)2 oscillator,�?? Opt. Lett. 30, 1811-1813 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, �??Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 1288-1290 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, �??Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, �??Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, �??Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.M. Streltsov and N.F. Borrelli, �??Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J.F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, �??Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, �??Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D.M. Krol, �??Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P.C. Becker, N.A. Olsson, and J.R. Simpson, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology, (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

Optical waveguide amplifier configuration and characterization set-up.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured internal gain spectrum obtained with an incident pump power of 460 mW in bi-directional pumping configuration. The dashed line indicates the total insertion losses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Internal gain of the 37-mm long Er-Yb waveguide amplifier as a function of the incident pump power for two different signal wavelengths: 1535 nm (triangles) and 1550 nm (circles).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Internal gain saturation curves measured at three different wavelengths: 1535 nm (triangles), 1550 nm (circles) 1565 nm (squares). Pump power is 460 mW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Waveguide amplifier noise figure at different wavelengths (triangles). Theoretical curve (dashed line) is calculated from the estimated value of the effective inversion level (35%).

Equations (1)

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NF = 1 G + 2 G 1 G N 2 N 2 ( σ A σ E ) N 1

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