Abstract

Microchannels are fabricated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) substrate by high repetition rate, nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses. The mechanism for channel fabrication is based on the localized heating of the substrate due to the high repetition rate of the laser, resulting in smooth walled cylindrical channels. Microchannels with diameters of 8 – 20 μm can be fabricated at 800 μm/s using 80 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 80 MHz and energy of 0.9 nJ/pulse.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).
  3. Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Morphological investigation at the front and rear surfaces of fused silica processed with femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Express 10, 1244–1249 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  4. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond lasers pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2023–2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1144–1146 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2007–2009 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 1855–1859 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” App. Phys. A 79, 605–612 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43, 4207–4211 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Day and M. Gu, “Formation of voids in doped polymethylmethacrylate polymer,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404–2406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Zhou, M. Ventura, M. Venner, and M. Gu, “Use of ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosion for fabricating three-dimensional void-based diamond lattice photonic crystals in a solid polymer material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2240–2242 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649–1651 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. H. Fan, J. Sun, and J. P. Longtin, “Plasma absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” J. Heat Transf. 124, 275–283 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Simultaneous multi-microhole drilling of soda-lime glass by water-assisted ablation with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 1855–1859 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

G. Zhou, M. Ventura, M. Venner, and M. Gu, “Use of ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosion for fabricating three-dimensional void-based diamond lattice photonic crystals in a solid polymer material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2240–2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” App. Phys. A 79, 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43, 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2007–2009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

M. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649–1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

C. H. Fan, J. Sun, and J. P. Longtin, “Plasma absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” J. Heat Transf. 124, 275–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Day and M. Gu, “Formation of voids in doped polymethylmethacrylate polymer,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404–2406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Morphological investigation at the front and rear surfaces of fused silica processed with femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Express 10, 1244–1249 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

1996 (2)

An, R.

Aoki, N.

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

Brodeur, A.

Bulgakova, N. M.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

Cheng, Y.

Choi, T. Y.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” App. Phys. A 79, 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Day, D.

D. Day and M. Gu, “Formation of voids in doped polymethylmethacrylate polymer,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404–2406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dou, Y.

Eaton, S.

S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C. H.

C. H. Fan, J. Sun, and J. P. Longtin, “Plasma absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” J. Heat Transf. 124, 275–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Garcia, J. F.

Giridhar, M. S.

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

Gong, Q.

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” App. Phys. A 79, 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

G. Zhou, M. Ventura, M. Venner, and M. Gu, “Use of ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosion for fabricating three-dimensional void-based diamond lattice photonic crystals in a solid polymer material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2240–2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649–1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Day and M. Gu, “Formation of voids in doped polymethylmethacrylate polymer,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404–2406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helvajian, H.

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Her, T. H.

Herman, P.

S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

Hirao, K.

Ho, S.

S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Hwang, D. J.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” App. Phys. A 79, 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iga, Y.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43, 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, T.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43, 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43, 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, A. O.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, Y.

Kawachi, M.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khulbe, P.

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, D.

Li, Y.

Longtin, J. P.

C. H. Fan, J. Sun, and J. P. Longtin, “Plasma absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” J. Heat Transf. 124, 275–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, M.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Midorikawa, K.

Milosavljevic, M.

Miura, K.

Muller, G.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

Nishii, J.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43, 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, E. S.

S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond lasers pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schulzgen, A.

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seong, K.

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shihoyama, K.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

Straub, M.

M. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649–1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Sugiola, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

C. H. Fan, J. Sun, and J. P. Longtin, “Plasma absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” J. Heat Transf. 124, 275–283 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Toyoda, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venner, M.

G. Zhou, M. Ventura, M. Venner, and M. Gu, “Use of ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosion for fabricating three-dimensional void-based diamond lattice photonic crystals in a solid polymer material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2240–2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, M.

G. Zhou, M. Ventura, M. Venner, and M. Gu, “Use of ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosion for fabricating three-dimensional void-based diamond lattice photonic crystals in a solid polymer material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2240–2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649–1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43, 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Yamada, K.

Yang, H.

Yoshino, F.

S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

S. Eaton, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, H. Zhang, S. Ho, P. Herman, and E. S. Rogers, “Thermal heating effects in writing optical waveguides with 0.1 - 5 MHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 5713, 35–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou, M. Ventura, M. Venner, and M. Gu, “Use of ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosion for fabricating three-dimensional void-based diamond lattice photonic crystals in a solid polymer material,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2240–2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

App. Opt. (1)

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schulzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” App. Opt. 43, 4584–4589 (2004).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. A (3)

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” App. Phys. A 79, 605–612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials,” App. Phys. A 77, 223–228 (2003).

M. Masuda, K. Sugiola, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” App. Phys. A 76, 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Day and M. Gu, “Formation of voids in doped polymethylmethacrylate polymer,” App. Phys. Lett. 80, 2404–2406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, “Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649–1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, “Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441–1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transf. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. App. Phys. (1)

Y. Iga, T. Ishizuka, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, Y. Li, and J. Nishii, “Characterization of micro-channels fabricated by in-water ablation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. App. Phys. 43, 4207–4211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond lasers pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26, 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2023–2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of (a) the experimental setup for fabrication of microchannels and (b) the fabrication geometry in the sample.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission images of a microchannel. (a) before and (b) after annealing at 200°C for 30 seconds. (c) and (d) are magnified sections of the channel before and after annealing. (e) illustrates that hollow channels are formed as water enters the channel via capillary action. The scale bars are 10 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured microchannel characteristics as a function of the fabrication speed. (a) width, (b) depth and (c) ratio of width to depth. (d) transmission image of microchannels. The scale bar is 50 μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured microchannel characteristics as a function of the number of fabrication repeats, (a) width, (b) depth, (c) ratio of width to depth. (d) transmission image of microchannel cross-sections. The scale bar is 50 μm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured microchannel characteristics as a function of the delay between repeats.

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